Appendix Research Paper Mla In-Text

Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes


Written for undergraduate students and new graduate students in psychology (experimental), this handout provides information on writing in psychology and on experimental report and experimental article writing.

Contributors:Dana Lynn Driscoll, Aleksandra Kasztalska
Last Edited: 2013-03-12 08:39:20

Appendices: When appendices might be necessary

Appendices allow you to include detailed information in your paper that would be distracting in the main body of the paper. Examples of items you might have in an appendix include mathematical proofs, lists of words, the questionnaire used in the research, a detailed description of an apparatus used in the research, etc.

Format of appendices

Your paper may have more than one appendix. Usually, each distinct item has its own appendix. If your paper only has one appendix, label it "Appendix" (without quotes.) If there is more than one appendix, label them "Appendix A," "Appendix B," etc. (without quotes) in the order that each item appears in the paper. In the main text, you should refer to the Appendices by their labels.

The actual format of the appendix will vary depending on the content; therefore, there is no single format. In general, the content of an appendix should conform to the appropriate APA style rules for formatting text.

Footnotes and Endnotes: When footnotes/endnotes might be necessary

Because APA style uses parenthetical citations, you do not need to use footnotes or endnotes to cite your sources. The only reasons you need to use footnotes are for explanatory (content) notes or copyright permission. Content footnotes contain information that supplements the text, but would be distracting or inappropriate to include in the body of the paper. In other words, content footnotes provide important information that is a tangent to what you are discussing in your paper.

The footnote should only express one idea. If it is longer than a few sentences, then you should consider putting this information in an appendix. Most authors do not use footnotes because they tend to be distracting to the readers. If the information is important, authors find a way to incorporate it into the text itself or put it in an appendix.

If you are including a quote that is longer than 500 words or a table or figure in your paper that was originally published elsewhere, then you need to include a footnote that acknowledges that you have permission from the owner of the copyright to use the material.

See our APA guidelines on Footnotes and Endnotes for more information.

When to use tables

Tables enable you to show your data in an easy to read format. However, you do not need to present all of your data in tabular form. Tables are only necessary for large amounts of data that would be too complicated in the text. If you only need to present a few numbers, you should do so directly in the text, not in a table.

How to use tables

Each table should be identified by a number, in the order that they appear in the text (e.g., Table 1, Table 2, etc.). When using a table, you need to refer to the table in the text (e.g., "As shown in Table 1,…") and point out to the reader what they should be looking for in the table. Do not discuss every piece of data that is in the table or else there is no point in having the table. Only mention the most important pieces of information from the table.

The table should also make sense on its own. Be sure to explain all abbreviations except standard abbreviations such as M, SD, and df. Don’t forget to identify the unit of measurement.

APA style has a specific format for tables. Tables should appear at the end of your paper, after the reference list and before any appendixes. Every table needs a unique title after its label. The title should be brief but clearly explain what is in the table.

Ask the MLAworks-cited list

How do I cite an appendix?

An appendix can be cited like any other division of a work: in the text.

A Single Appendix

You may refer to a single appendix in your prose or parenthetically.

In the appendix to her essay, Judith Bryant Wittenberg details several useful questions for classroom discussion of The Sound and The Fury.

Work Cited

Wittenberg, Judith Bryant. “Teaching The Sound and the Fury with Freud.” Approaches to Teaching Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury, edited by Stephen Hahn and Arthur F. Kinney, Modern Language Association of America, 1996, pp. 73-78.


Judith Bryant Wittenberg details several useful questions for classroom discussion of The Sound and The Fury (appendix).

Work Cited

Wittenberg, Judith Bryant. “Teaching The Sound and the Fury with Freud.” Approaches to Teaching Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury, edited by Stephen Hahn and Arthur F. Kinney, Modern Language Association of America, 1996, pp. 73-78.

Multiple Appendixes

Appendixes are generally labeled numerically or alphabetically, like tables and figures; sometimes, they are titled. If you cite an appendix from a work that includes more than one, include the label or title so that your reader can locate it:

Grady C. Wray catalogs Christ’s finezas, or love offerings, according to the Church Fathers, Antonio Viera, and Sor Juana (appendix A); he also details the scriptural references for Viera’s opinions (appendix B) and for Sor Juana’s (appendixes C, D).

Work Cited

Wray, Grady C. “Sacred Allusions: Theology in Sor Juana’s Work.” Approaches to Teaching the Works of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, edited by Emilie L. Bergmann and Stacey Schlau, Modern Language Association of America, 2007, pp. 65-76.

Appendix with Separate Author

Rarely, appendixes have an author different from that of the work. When the appendix appears in a unified, stand-alone work, you can treat it as a separate work:

But for appendixes to sections of a work, as for an essay in an anthology, find a way to acknowledge the author in the text:

Published 12 December 2017

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