Adolf Loos Ornament And Crime Selected Essays 1917-1932

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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF 20TH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF 20TH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF 20TH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE GENERAL EDITOR: VITTORIO

MAGNAGO LAMPUGNANI

HARRY

ABRAMS,

N.

INC., PUBLISHERS,

NEW YORK

Translated frem the

German and

edited by Barry Bergdoll

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Hatje-Lexikon der Architektur des 20. Jahrhunderts. English.

Encyclopedia of 20th century architecture. Translation of: Hatje-Lexikon der Architektur des 20.

Jahrhunderts/translated from the

German and

edited by

Barry Bergdoll. "Originally published in 1964 as Encyclopedia of

modern

Architecture. Translated and adapted from Knaurs

Lexikon der modernen Architektur"



Includes index. I. I.

II.

Architecture,

Modern

— 20th century — Dictionaries.

Lampugnani, Vittono Magnago, 1951Bergdoll, Barry.

NA680.H3913

ISBN ISBN

III.

1985

Title.

84-24166

724.9T0321

0-8109-0860-3 0-8109-2335-1 (pbk.)

Originally published in 1964 as Encyclopedia of Modern Architecture, translated

and adapted from Knaurs Lexikon

der

modernen Architektur, edited by Wolfgang Pehnt. Copyright

Droemersche

Verlagsanstalt, Th.

This completely revised and enlarged 1986 edition

and adapted from the revised

©

Knaur Nachf, Munich and Zurich.

German

is

translated

edition, Hatje Lexikon der

by Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani. Copyright © 1983 Verlag Gerd Hatje, Stuttgart. English translation and additional material copyright © 1986 Thames and Hudson Ltd., London, and Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Architektur des 20. Jahrhunderts, edited

New York. Published in 1986 by Harry N. Abrams, Incorporated, All rights reserved.

No part of the contents

New York.

of this book

may

be

reproduced without the written permission of the publishers. Published in Great Britain under the

title

Encyclopedia of 20th-century Architecture

Printed and

bound

in Japan

The Thames and Hudson

General Editor's Preface

The predecessor of this work, the Encyclopaedia of Modern Architecture, was first published in

of this type is of necessity limited, but an index of proper names is also included for the reader's

1963. Now, after an interval of twenty years, a new, expanded and completely revised version

against inclusion has to be based

is

available.

their

wide implications - omitted.

Similarly, important figures such as Heinrich

Tessenow, then not the subject of much discussion, were not accorded individual entries alongside a Mies van der Rohe or a Terragni; even Erich Mendelsohn was included primarily for his bold use of modern materials, rather than for the expressive and sculptural qualities of his work; and, in the context of building materials, glass, steel and reinforced concrete - viewed as primary stimuli in the evolution of a new architecture- were accorded their own entries. In short, after more than twenty years, the preparation of a new edition could not be restricted to bringing existing entries

up

to date

new names and concepts. entire work had to be revised and

and introducing

Rather, the given a broader historical basis. It is thus not a matter of chance that this latest edition appears

under a different title, one in which the emotive and subjective concept of the Modern Movement has been replaced by a neutral designation based on the period covered. The scope of this encyclopaedia

is,

then, the

and urban planning of the 20th century seen in an overall spectrum and presented in three different general categories of subject-matter: biographies of individual architects; surveys of architectural developments in individual countries; and overviews of movements, groups and stylistic trends. The number of individual biographical entries which can be included in an encyclopaedia architecture

on a variety of an omission may well seem unjust. The same holds true in the case of those criteria,

Any attempt at an overview of architectural development, such as that presented in an encyclopaedia, is inevitably rooted in the assumptions and historical perspectives of the period in which it is compiled. It comes as no surprise, therefore, that in the early 1960s an over-riding concern was to present an extensive panorama of architectural modernism, with the result that concepts and movements like contemporary historicism or Art Deco were despite

convenience. In each case the decision for or

and

many

individual countries tural

output

is

whose

significant architec-

the subject of closer scrutiny; as

with the biographical entries, the choice has had to be severely restricted and the coverage general.

The

situation

is

no

different, either, in

the case of movements, groups and trends; their

inclusion brings with

questionable

it

an involvement in the

game of philological

classification

and labelling - something which inevitably tends to categorize in crude terms the complex and multifarious elements that interact with each other in a cultural context. The era in which an encyclopaedia could by claim to being a tool for 'knowing everything'

Denis Diderot and Jean-Baptiste past. d'Alembert could still put forth a thoroughly unified and complete system of human knowledge as a manifesto of the Enlightenment. Today, when knowledge presents itself as fragmentary and contradictory, it is no longer possible to produce encyclopaedias in which a great deal of varied information is juxtaposed with equal weighting. Thus, our aim here is to is

offer a

handbook which contains an overview,

and even more a book to provide the reader with a sense of orientation within a larger context, rather than to present a definitive and complete compilation of facts. The latter is better achieved in works devoted to specific topics.

Jorge Luis Borges' statement that 'to possess an encyclopaedia is to possess all books' can only be valid if the general work directs the reader to the specific. The present encyclopaedia seeks to achieve this by means ofbibliographic.il citations at the end of individual entries, as well as by its overall structure: by taking a middle course in as exact and complete as necessary but same time as lucid and as far-reaching

being the

possible.

.

at

as

Thus, the architects selected are those independent

who first formulated or advocated and

clearly stated positions (,u^\ in

some

cases

themselves embodied

shifts

in

entirely

directions); the countries are those

new

which have

witnessed important and influential architectural developments; and the movements those

which have had a decisive influence on the entire architectural panorama. Even if the final responsibility for the selection and the balancing of the entries lies with the editor, there is certainly no other type of book in which one relies more on the help of others than

is

the case with an encyclopaedia.

The

work is the result of the collective efforts group of colleagues, almost without exception well-acquainted and often close who, despite holding varying friends, present

of

a

viewpoints, united in

These

contributors

this

common

cannot

all

be

purpose. suitably

thanked here, and least of all Axel Menges, who was the most closely involved with the book as a relentless reader and a most competent con-

of the task of co-ordination; and Gerd Hatje, who was naturally also closely involved as a contributor, friend, critic, adviser and publisher. Finally, mention must be made of the fact that a significant part of my own work on this tributor, as well as bearing the brunt

book was done

at

Columbia University,

New

York, especially on those articles which directly concern the USA. This would not have been possible without the generous support of the American Council of Learned Societies and, in particular, the personal and friendly interest of Richard Downar, Director of the American Studies Program. VML

List of contributors

FA

Friedrich Achleitner

VML

Vittorio

RB

Reyner Banham

BB

Carolina Mang Karl Mang

CB

Barry Bergdoll Moritz Besser Peter Blake Christian Borngräber

CM KM

RBr

Robert Bruegmann

NM

MC

Max

RMi

MB PB

AC-P JLC

Cetto Alexandre Cirici-Pellicer Jean Louis Cohen

RLD

Robert

L.

Delevoy

RM HM AM

KM HEM LM CFO

Magnago Lampugnani

Robert Maxwell Harold Meek Axel Menges Norbert Meßler Robin Middleton Kirmo Mikkola Henrique E. Mindlin Leonardo Mosso Christian F. Otto

PD

Philip

TF KF JG

Tobias Faber

JPa

Kenneth Frampton

WP

Jorge Glusberg Vittorio Gregotti

JPo

Oswald W. Grube Ids Haagsma Hilde de Haan Horst Härtung Gerd Hatje

PR

Peter

JR

Joseph Rykwert Peter C. von Seidlein Margit Staber

VG

OWG IH

HdH

HH GHa GHe

Drew

CR PCvS

MS GS

Gilbert Herbert

PS

Antonio Hernandez Thomas Herzog John M. Jacobus, Jr

JS

FJ

Falk Jaeger

JJV

JJ

BL

Jürgen Joedicke William H. Jordy Walter Kieß Björn Linn

DM

David Mackay

AH TH JMJ

WHJ

WK

BT

GV

FW

AW

Jürgen Paul Wolfgang Pehnt Julius Posener Christopher Riopelle

Rumpf

Gavin Stamp Pekka Suhonen Julia Szabo Barbara Tilson Giulia Veronesi Jacobus Johannes Vriend Frank Werner Arnold Whittick

Boyd Whyte

IBW AWi

Iain

HY

Hajime Yatsuka

Alfred Willis

Dating In references to individual buildings, the dates cited are presented in accordance with the information available. If specific, distinct dates are known for the original design and for subsequent construction, both are given (e.g.

'1937, 1939-42'); in

many

instances,

however,

only the overall period from design to completion or of the period of construction alone may be known, and in such cases a simple span of years is indicated (e.g., '1939-42'); in other instances it has only been possible to state the year of completion. Cross-references

Further information in related entries is indicated by means of an asterisk preceding the title of the entry to be consulted.

beginning of his relationship with artists such as Fernand Leger, Constantin Brancusi, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Georges Braque and Alexander Calder. A. and his family moved to Helsinki in 193 1, an event which signalled his complete

A

integration into Finnish cultural

Aalto, (Hugo) Alvar (Henrik),

Kuortane, Finland 1898, d. Helsinki 1976. Studied at the Polytechnic in Helsinki from 19 16, graduating in 1 921; he was a pupil of Armas Lindgren and Lars Sonck. In the following years he travelled widely in Scandinavia, Central Europe and Italy and was probably active for a short time in the Planning Office of the Gothenburg Fair of 1923. His career began officially with the Tampere Industrial Exhibition of 1922, although various minor works dating from student years are

his

In 1923 A.

and

in

Marsio,

opened

b.

known. his first office

injyväskylä,

1925 he married the architect Aino

who was

to be his

most important

collaborator until her death in 1949, above all in handling the production and direction of the

Wooden

life.

The highly important Turku period closed with the shift of A.'s work and of Finnish architecture in general towards modernism.

the

At same time his work in Turku anticipated the developed Aalto

style. Thus, the period already encapsulated the outstanding characteristic of A.'s architecture: its capacity to be both of its time and essentially

later, fully

works of

this

Examples are the Headquarters of the Turun Sanomat newspaper in Turku (1927—8,

timeless.

1928-9), the Library in Viipuri (1927, 1930-5) and the Sanatorium of Southwest Finland in

Paimio (1928, 1929—33). Numerous other works date from this period, many of which were soon to become classics of modern architecture: A.'s own house in Helsinki (1934, 19356);

the Finnish Pavilion at the Paris Exposition

first

Universelle (1935, 1936-7); the complex for the Cellulose Factory in Sunila (1935-7, 1936-9); the Villa Mairea, near Noormakku (1937-8);

In 1927 A. left Jyväskylä, where he had designed several important buildings including the Workers' Club of 1923-5 and the building

Fair (1937, 1938—9),

firm of Artek

Furniture,

which was

conceived in 1928 in conjunction with the construction of the Sanatorium at Paimio.

for the Patriots' Associations, 1927—9

which belong

He

- works

to his pre-functional, neo-classi-

Turku, then Finland's These were key years in his development as an architect, a period in which his works attest to the same direction and the same level of quality as the most advanced contemporary work in Central Europe. The standardized block of flats of 1927-8 in Turku, with its prefabricated concrete elements, is comparable with the contemporary experiments of *Mies van der Rohe and *Gropius in Stuttgart. In 1929 A. worked in collaboration with cal period.

most

settled in

artistically receptive city.

*Bryggman on

the exhibition held to celebrate

the 700th anniversary

of the

city

of Turku;

staged one year before the better-known Stockholm Exhibition designed by *Asplund, it was,

together with the house A. built in Turku, the first complete and public expression of modern architecture in Scandinavia. In the same year A.

was drawn into the international architectural avant garde as the result of Sigfried Giedion's praise and through his participation at the meeting of *CIAM. This year also marks the

New

York World's the Finnish Pavilion at the and the Terrace House in

Kauttua (1937, 1938-40). Moreover, several unexecuted designs of this period are essential to an understanding of the complex themes of A.'s work. These include: the Blomberg Cinema in Helsinki (1938); the competition design for the extension of the University Library in Helsinki Aalto. Municipal Library, Viipuri (1930^5)

Aalto

House) nology

Town

Massachusetts Institute of TechCambridge, Mass. (1947—8); and the

at the

in

Hall in Säynätsalo (1949, 1950—2), a which a love of ma-

timeless masterpiece in terials

and

rediscovered

and

a

romantic

as a

means

political values

of space are enhance the social

sense to

of the community. The

unrealized design for the cemetery chapel in

Malm in north Helsinki (1950) reflects a psychological sensitivity

to

human

respect for the pain experienced

fragility and a by those having

of another person's death; here Aalto achieved the profundity and tenderness of high poetry, for which no parallel exists in the architecture of this period. Likewise unrealized, the cemetery project for Kongens Lyngby, near to face the fact

Aalto. Cellulose Factory, Sunila (1935-7, 1936-9) Aalto.

Town

Copenhagen

Hall, Säynätsalo (1949, 1950-2)

(195

1),

succeeded

more than

any other design in encapsulating A.'s relationship to Nature as a logical collaborator in

Haka

the creative process. Finally, the project for the

Helsinki (1940); the 'Experimental City' (1941); and the development plan for the Kokemäki valley (194 1-2).

Vogelweidplatz in Vienna (1953) expresses another recurrent and complex theme in A.'s work — the effect on the individual of being handled as part of the greater mass. A. achieved at this point an absolute control in the handling of technique and space, based on his thirty years' experience and enriched by his continual involvement with human and psychological needs. This was also the period of his

(1938); the competition entry for the district in

The war

years, during

which A. served on

the front, and the period immediately after the

war, in which he was actively engaged in reconstruction work in Finland (including the development plan for the ruined capital of Finnish Lapland, Rovaniemi, which he drew

up

in 1944-5), interrupted the architect's cre-

development; around 1950, however, his fertile mind was directed towards even more complex problems, considering simultaneously the fundamental physical, psychological, social and cultural needs of the era. From this period ative

date: the Senior Students'

Dormitory (Baker

urban involvement, culminating in his different plans for the centre of the Finnish capital (195973). His most important buildings in Helsinki include: the National Pensions Institution (1948, 1952-6); the Rautatalo Office Building (1952, 1953—5); the Cultural Centre (1955-8); the Administration Building of the Enso-

Aalto

Aalto. Cultural Centre, Helsinki (1955-8)

Aalto. Vuoksenniska Church, Imatra (1957-9)

Gutzeit Company (1959, 1960-2); the Scandinavian Bank Building (1962, 1962-4); the University Bookshop (1962, 1966—9); the Con-

after the

cert

and Congress Hall (1962, 1967-71); and 'Finlandia' conference centre and

finally the

concert hall (1970, 1973-5).

The architect Elissa Mäkiniemi, whom A. had married in 1952, collaborated increasingly in his later works, and particularly on the extension to the Polytechnic in Otaniemi and the Lappia Cultural Centre in Rovaniemi, the latter built 1970-5 as part of the administrative and cultural centre originally projected in 1963. Since 1976 Elissa Aalto has continued the work of A.'s office, having finished work left incomplete or still at the planning stages at the time of the master's death, including the Essen

House

Opera

(1959fr), the Civic Centre in Jyväskylä

(1964fr.),

and the church

at

Lahti (competition

project 1950, realized i97off.). In addition to work in Helsinki, a

and the prototype houses for the reconstruction

war

(1941); the master-plan for Imatra

(1947-53); the regional plan for Lapland (19505); the campus of the College of Education,

Jyväskylä (1950, 1953—6); the centre of Seinäjoki with the Protestant Church (1952, 195860), the Town Hall (i960, 1962-5), Library (1963, 1964—5) (1963,

and Parish Community House own summer house in

1964-6); A.'s

Muuratsalo

Munkkiniemi

(1953);

his

(1953-5); the

own

studio

in

main building of

the Polytechnic in Imatra (1956, 1957-9); the

Vuoksenniska church, Imatra (1956, 1957-9); Museum of Central Finland in Jyväskylä (1959, 1960-2); the Library of the Polytechnic in Otaniemi (1964, 1965-9); the Sports Institute of the College of Education, Jyväskylä (1967-8, 1968-70); and the Alvar Aalto Museum in the

Jyväskylä (1971, i97i~3)A. was also responsible for

a series

of build-

whole of buildings, development plans and

ings and projects outside Finland. These include, in addition to those already mentioned:

projects outside the capital bear witness to the

the apartment building for 'Interbau' in Berlin's Hansaviertel (1955-7); the Finnish Pavilion at the Venice Biennale (1956); the Maison Carre at

series

high quality of A.'s design capabilities and to the profundity of his thought, deeply rooted in the historical, cultural, and geographical traditions of his country. For example: the programme

Bazoches-sur-Guyonne (1956-9); tnc North Jutland

Museum

in

Älborg,

Denmark

(1958,

Aalto

cerne, (1965, 1966—8), the Library of

Mount

Angel Benedictine College, Mount Angel, Oregon (1965-6, 1967-70); and the parish

community

centre in Riola di Vergato, near

Bologna (1966-78). Among A.'s unrealized projects were those for town halls in Gothenburg (1955-7), Marl (1957) and Castrop-Rauxel (1965), for a cultural centre in Leverkusen (1962), and for museums in Baghdad (1958) and Shiraz (1970). The furniture, lighting fixtures and other

by A. in conjunction with his individual building projects from 1928 on, and produced under his supervision, reflected the same development stages as are seen in his architecture. These interior fittings were always conceived as 'detached parts' of the useful objects designed

which they were intended - they should not be regarded simply as instruments of, but rather as one aspect of an allencompassing architectonic vision. LM Aalto, Alvar, 'Rationalism and Man', The Architectural Forum (New York), September 'Zwischen Humanismus und 1935; Materialismus', Der Bau (Vienna), nos. 7/8, 'Problemi di architettura', Quademi 1955; ACI (Turin), November 1956; Labö, Giorgio, Alvar Aalto, Milan 1948; Gutheim, Frederick, New York i960; Mosso, Alvar Aalto, Leonardo, L' opera di Alvar Aalto, Milan 1965: Alvar Aalto, I: 1Q22-62, Zurich 1963; Alvar Aalto, II: ig6j~70, Zurich 197 1; Alvar Aalto, III: Projekte und letzte Zeichnungen, Zurich 1978; particular building for

Aalto. Maison Carre, Bazoches-sur-Guyonne, France (1956-9) Aalto. Church

at

Riola

di

Vergato (1966-78)

D

1969-73); the apartment block in Bremen's

Neue Vahr development

(1958, 1959—62); the

and the parish centre (1959, 1960-2) in Wolfsburg; the Vastmanland-Dala Students' Associcultural centre (1958, 1959-62)

community

ation headquarters in Uppsala (1961, 1963-5);

House in Reykjavik (1962-3, 1965-8); the interior design of the Institute of International Education, York (1963, Scandinavia

New

1964-5); the Schönbühl apartment house, Lu-

,

,

Aillaud

New

Pearson, P. D., Alvar Aalto,

York

1978,

Mosso, Leonardo, Alvar Aalto (exhibition catalogue), Turin 198 1; Quantill, Malcolm, 1980;

Alvar Aalto: a

critical study,

Abramovitz, Max, at

b.

London

Champaign-

Urbana, Columbia University in New York, and at the *Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 194 1 he entered the office of Wallace K. *Harrison and Jacques Andre Fouilhoux; from 1945 to 1976 he was Harrison's partner. D The Architecture of Max Abramovitz,

Champaign-Urbana, Adler, Dankmar,

Weimar, Germany

111.

b.

1963.

Stadt

near

Lengsfeld,

Chicago 1900. The son of a cantor, A. began his drawing studies at fifteen. Emigrated to Detroit, 1854. Worked in 1844, d.

association with A.J. Kinney, 1869—71;

Edward

Burling, 187 1-9; Louis H. Sullivan, 1881-95.

(*USA; ^Chicago School). With Burling, he collaborated on numerous designs during the building boom in Chicago which followed the great fire of 187 1. In 1879, he set up independent practice and was joined two years later by Sullivan. His most important work was the Central Music Hall in Chicago

demolished to provide space for the present retail store of Marshall Field and Co.), (later

which was

entirely

A.'s

work except

for

organ grilles. Finished in 1879, it was the prototype for a subsequent series of theatres by the firm, notably the Auditorium Building. The planning, layout and lighting were noteworthy in these buildings, although A. was praised primarily for his instinctive mastery of acoustics. Sullivan rose rapidly to the position of chief draughtsman. During his later years, A. managed the engineering and business aspects of the firm and Sullivan's decorative

was

the building

it

the concealment of

PL

Institute Kindergarten in Osaka (1974), or a conscious restraint itself, as

in his

in architectural expression, as in the

1983.

Chicago, 1908. Studied

the University of Illinois at

ture of 'concealment', be

Nirvana

House in Fujisawa (1972) or in the Annihilation House in Mutsuura (also 1972). AM

D

The Japan

Architect

(Tokyo), 232, vol. 51

(1976), no. 6, pp. 29-38; op. (1977), nos. 10/11, pp. 51-4.

cit.,

247, vol. 52

Aillaud, Emile, b. Mexico 1902. The housing estates which A. built after World War II in France, such as Les Courtilieres in Pantin (195556, 1957—60), Wiesberg at Forbach (1959, 1961 ff.) and La Grande Borne at Grigny (1964—71), are representative of the attempts to compensate for the uniformity which resulted from extensively industrialized constructional meth-

ods (principally heavy construction employing prefabricated reinforced-concrete panels) by adopting more individualizing urban planning strategies. This is chiefly achieved in the overall arrangement of the building masses, reduced to

smooth

abstract forms, in curved serpentine compositions; through the integration of works of art; and finally through the careful handling of public spaces, at times eccentrically shaped

and colourfully treated. The residents are thereby given an impetus to identify with their AM environment. D Dhuys, Jean-Francois, L' Architecture selon Emile Aillaud, Paris 1983.

Aillaud. Les Courtillieres housing (1955-6, 1957-60)

estate,

Pantin

active in various architectural organiza-

introducing many progressive reforms and attempting to improve the position of tions,

Among

architecture in

American

works were a one, Anshe

of interesting synagogues, father's his Ma'arev, for

society.

his

series

congregation.

D

Salzstein, Joan;

'Dankmar Adler:

the

Man,

the Architect, the Author', Wisconsin Architect 38.

Aida, Takefumi, b. Tokyo 1937. A member of the *Architext group, he represents an architec
Albini

Albini, Franco, b. Robbiate, Como, 1905, d. Milan 1977. Studied at Milan Politecnico; diploma 1925. From 1930 he practised alone and after 1952 with Franca Helg; in 1962 Antonio Piva joined the practice, followed in 1965 by A.'s son Marco. He was a professor at Milan Politecnico, 1963-77, and a member of

Roman

Renaissance palaces, while the infill panels harmonize with the existing urban envi-

ronment through

their reddish colour and granular texture. Representative of his interior

schemes and restorations, principally of museums, is the Museo del Palazzo Bianco at

Genoa

Assicurazione (INA)

where the metaphysical spatial and transparent or intersecting glass surfaces became prototypical; the Museo del Tesoro di San Lorenzo (1954—6),

1935, A.'s

also in

*CIAM. The

effects

Pavilion for the Istituto Nazionale delle

at the Milan Congress of executed work, exhibits already in unmistakable fashion his straightforward reductivist style, which is not uninfluenced by the architectural vocabulary of *Mies van der Rohe. His style is characterized by formal restraint, geometric order, technical perfection first

and the careful attention to

detail.

A. applied these principles in the totality of his artistic activity. Important stages in his strictly-defined

architectural

work

are:

the

Favio Filzi workers' housing in Milan (1936; with Renato Camus and Giancarlo Palanti); the

Milan (1938); the INA Building in Parma (195 1); and the department store La Rinascente in Rome (1957—62; with Franca Helg), in which the mat black steel construction takes up the moulding patterns of Villa Pestarini, also in

(195

of

1),

clear geometries

Genoa, with its crystalline dovetailed ground-plan and dramatic lighting effects; and the restoration of the Chiostro degli Eremitani for the municipal museum in Padua (1969-74). A.'s industrial design

work

extends from his

role in the team-designed metal chair for the

1936 Triennale to the circular 'Margherita' armchair of Spanish cane and bamboo (with Franca Helg) for the i960 Triennale. Among his town-planning activities, the plan for Reggio Emilia (1947-8) is noteworthy; Giancarlo *De

Carlo and other architects collaborated on

this

project. A's. architectural

work,

in

cation of form and structure in

practice

went -

in

its

which the identifi-

is

a

constant theme,

attention

to

the

urban context - beyond the limits of dogmatic *Rationalism, though without abandoning its fundamental principles. VML D Argan, Giulio Carlo, Franco Albini, Milan

historical

1962; Moschini,

F.,

Franco Albini,

London

1979.

Alexander, Christopher,

b. Vienna 1936 (the son of English parents). Studied architecture and mathematics. In 1970 he became Professor

art*?!* "

i

-ffciii:

Albini. La Rinascente department (with Franca Helg; 1957-62)

U

of Architecture at the University of California His contribution to contemporary architecture lies foremost in the realm of planning theory, which he attempts to establish on a more solid basis by the application of scientific principles. A. started from the observation that original native cultures, because of their gradual organic development, unconsciously produce forms in complete harmony with their environment. He then developed complex mathematical formulae, as equivalents of this type of 'unconscious' form-creation process, by which design and planning problems are decomposed into a series of components and then by reversal recomposed into fundamental 'patterns' to synthesize form. The experimental results achieved at the Center for Environmental Structures (CES) founded in 1967 at Berkeley led to a greater emphasis on in Berkeley.

store,

Rome

Andrews empirical investigation of the needs and de-

Aires (1966), the country's

mands of users. The first major practical of A.'s theories was his contribution

testing

entirely of steel.

to the

D

competition for a residential quarter with 1,500 units in

D

Lima

Alexander,

C, Notes on the Synthesis ofForm, 1964;

,

London 1975; London 1977; Way of Building, London 1979.

Experiment,

Language,

The Oregon ,

,

A

Pattern

The Timeless

along with

aM

Marcelo

A.,

Mario

Roberto

Alvarez, Buenos Aires 1975.

Amsterdam, School

of. Group of architects whose analysis of the works of *Berlage and the young Frank Lloyd *Wright served as a point

of departure for

their

own

work, and

who

represented a local 'vernacular' parallel to German *Expressionism, particularly as it had been

Almqvist, Osvald, b. Trankil, near -Karlstad 1884, d. Stockholm 1950. Studied first at the Technical College and then at the Academy of Fine Arts in Stockholm, which he left in 1910 to establish,

made

AM

(1969).

Cambridge, Mass.

Trabuco,

building

first

six fellow-students includ-

manifested in the early works of Erich ^Mendelsohn. Their mouthpiece was the magazine Wendingen edited by (1918-36), Hendricus Theodorus Wijdeveld. Their sculp-

picturesquely-composed

turally-conceived,

ing Sigurd *Lewerentz, the short-lived Free

brick buildings stand in abrupt contrast to the

Architectural School. There — under the profes-

spare rationalist buildings of the contemporary

sors

Carl

Ragnar Östberg, Ivar Carl Westman - Gunnar

Bergsten,

Tengbom and

*Asplund was to study.

In opposition to the

academic *neo-classicism which was taught at the time in Sweden, A. and his associates embraced a re-evaluation of the Swedish vernacular tradition, a sort of 'national realism'.

With his designs for standardized kitchen components (1922) and his hydro-electric power plants near Hammarsfors and Krängfors (both 1925-8), in which all ties to the past are cut, A. became one of the pioneers of modernism in Sweden. GHa D Linn, Björn, Osvald Almqvist: En Arkitekt och Hans Arbete, Stockholm 1967. Alvarez, Mario Roberto, b. Buenos Aires 1913. Immediately upon completing his studies in Buenos Aires in 1937, he opened his own office (since 1947 Mario Roberto Alvarez y

He was Architect to Works in Buenos Aires,

Asociados).

De

*Stijl group. The most eminent exponents of the Amsterdam School were J. M. van der *Mey, P. L. *Kramer and Michel de *Klerk. D Pehnt, Wolfgang, Expressionist Architecture, London and New York 1980; Searing, Helen, 'Berlage or Cuypers? The Father of them all' in Searing, H. (ed.), In Search of Modern Architecture, Cambridge, Mass. 1983, pp. 226-44.

Andrews, John, b. Sydney

1933. Studied at the

Harvard Univerunder J. L. *Sert. In 1962 he opened his own office in Toronto and in 1973 one in Sydney. He taught at the University of Toronto 1962-9. His debut on the international architectural scene came with Scarborough College, Ontario (ist phase 1963; 2nd phase 1969), a late masterpiece of New Brutalism. In addition to the emphasis University of Sydney and

at

sity

the Ministry

1937-42, and City Architect of Avellaneda, 1942-7; he acted as Advisor to the Secretary of Public Works of

for Public

his native city,

1958-62. A. became one of the

leading architects of Argentina and an impor-

of the Modern Movement, to which he remained consistently faithful. Interested in the shaping of all aspects of the physical environment, he has been active not only in tant advocate

conventional architectural matters, but also, for instance, in dealing with issues of engineering construction and the problems of prefabrication in relation to prevailing conditions in tina.

Argen-

An example of his more recent work is the

headquarters of the Somisa firm in Buenos

Andrews. Scarborough through Humanities

College,

Wing

Onun

(1964^ -5)

IS

8

Arbeitsrat

fiir

Kunst

on raw materials and monumental forms, an essential characteristic

of the building

internal street (a concession to the cold

is

the

Cana-

dian winter) which serves to unite all the college functions one to another. A.'s other important buildings include the Seaport Passenger Terminal in the Port of

Miami, Florida

(1967), the

Graduate School of Design at Harvard University (1968), and the Cameron Office Block at Belconnen, Canberra, Australia. AM D Drew, Philip, The Third Generation, the Changing Meaning of Architecture, New York 1972; 'Conversations with the John Andrews Architects', Progressive Architecture, no. 54 (Feb.

1972), pp. 62-75.

Arbeitsrat für Kunst. Group of German architects and artists founded in December 1 9 1 under the leadership of Bruno *Taut; it rapidly gained a large membership, which included the architects Otto *Bartning, Walter *Gropius, Erich *Mendelsohn and Max *Taut, the painters Cesar Klein, Erich Heckel, Ludwig Meidner, Max Pechstein, Karl SchmidtRottluff and Lyonel Feininger, and the sculptors Rudolf Belling, Oswald Herzog and Gerhard Marcks. It was Taut's original intention that the Arbeitsrat

-

unlike the

bergruppe - should exercise in the post-revolutionary

*Novem-

political influence

government

as

an

equivalent to the workers' and soldiers' councils which briefly held power in Novem-

artistic

December 191 8. The founding manidemanded: 'Art and the people must form a unity .... From now on the artist alone, as moulder of the sensibilities of the people, will be responsible for the visible fabric of the new state.' No political power was gained, however, and Taut resigned from the leadership at the end of February 1919, to be replaced by Gropius. Dismissing any direct political aspirations,

ber and festo

Gropius suggested that the Arbeitsrat should be reorganized into a community of radical architects, painters and sculptors who would work together on a symbolic building task, the 'Bauprojekt'. This would provide the means of

mam artistic aim, which was defined as 'the fusion of the arts under the wing of a great architecture'. However, the achieving the group's

combination of political instability, inflation and material shortages precluded any concrete progress on this project. In April 19 19, Gropius took up his post at the newly-established *Bauhaus at Weimar, whose 16

first

programme

closely reflected the ideals

of

Although the 'Bauprojekt' was retained as an ultimate goal, the group increasingly devoted its attention to publications and exhibitions. In addition to its own programmes and the 'Architektur-Programm' of Bruno Taut, the group also published two books, Ja! the Arbeitstrat.

Stimmen des Arbeitsrates für Kunst in Berlin (1919), and Ruf zum Bauen (1920). Among the exhibitions organized by the Arbeitsrat were the 'Ausstellung fur unbekannte Architekten' (April 19 19), another devoted to workers' and children's art (January 1920), and 'Neues Bauen' (May 1920). The group also arranged exhibitions of contemporary German art in Antwerp and Amsterdam. Although the exhibitions attracted considerable public attention,

group became increasingly and the Arbeitstrat was formally dissolved on 30 May 192 1. IBW the finances of the

strained during 1920

D

Arbeistrat für

Berlin 1980;

Kunst (exhibition catalogue), Iain Boyd, Bruno Taut and

Whyte,

the Architecture of Activism,

Cambridge

1982.

The Archigram group was formed through the collaboration of six young architects who came together in i960 while working for Taylor Woodrow Construction Co. on the redevelopment of Euston Station, London, under the direction of Theo Crosby: Warren Chalk (b. 1927), Peter *Cook, Dennis Crompton (b. 1935), David Greene (b. 1937), Ron Herron (b. 1930) and Michael Webb (b. Archigram.

The first number of Archigram appeared 96 1, and the name of the publication soon became the name of the group and a statement of their method: architecture by drawing. They !937)-

in

1

were

identified publicly after their

- 'Living City' in 1963 at the Contemporary Arts in London.

bition

first

exhi-

Institute

of

Their ideas were initially directed against formal conventions and towards all kinds of loose and free associations. This led towards expendables, towards pop culture and its optimistic assimilation of new technology, and the idea that the most advanced space hardware should be available as an everyday enabling system to generate more personal choices and to break down the tyranny of the traditional city. As architects, they were able to project their ideas graphically with great verisimilitude and knowledge of technical gadgetry. The group found a strong supporter in the critic

Reyner Banham, whose

writings,

in

Art Deco

Archigram. Walking City

project

(Ron Herron;

1964)

addition to their their ideas

of educational London, Warwickshire, Hertfordshire and Dorset, and university premises at Leicester, Carmarthen and Cambridge. Their early use of industrialized building materials and their preference for an 'anonymous' team approach to architecture, legacies of the European continental Modern Movement, were developed into the current quently displayed in a

series

buildings, including schools in

own

worldwide.

prolific talents, spread It

could be said that the

group did for architecture something akin to what the Beatles did for music in the 1960s. Their concepts of expendability were also adopted by the *Metabolism school in Japan. Their most influential Utopian projects were Fulham Study (1963), Plug-in City (Cook, 1964-6), Walking City (Herron, 1964), Cushicle (Webb, 1966/7), Instant City (Cook, 1968) and Inflatable suit-Home (Greene, 1968); among their realized or realizable designs were the Archigram Capsule at Expo '70 in Osaka, the project for a summer casino at Monte Carlo (1971), a review of contemporary British design at the Louvre in Paris (1971) and the still extant Malaysian Exhibition Institute in

London

at

the

Commonwealth

RM

(1973).

D

Archigram (London), 1961—70; Cook, Peter, and Plan, London and New York 1967; Experimental Architecture, London and New York 1970; Archigram,

Architecture. Action

,

,

London and

New

York

1974.

sophisticated consultant engineering firm.

Architext.

An

HM

informal group of architects,

centred on the periodical of the same name, founded in 1971 by Takefumi *Aida, Taka-

mitsu *Azuma, Mayumi Miyawaki, Makoto Suzuki, and Minoru Takeyama. The various members subscribe to no complete doctrine, as was the case with *Archigram in England or the representatives of *Metabolism in Japan, but rather the rejection of such doctrines, which they consider to be expressions of the totalitar-

of modernism. Convinced indipluralism, for argue AM discontinuity and contradiction. D Architext (Tokyo); 'Architext', The Japan Architect (Tokyo), 232, vol. 51 (1976), no. 6, pp. ian pretensions vidualists,

they

"

19-80.

Architects' Co-Partnership. Practice orig-

founded in 1939 by eight former students of the Architectural Association, London, and reformed in 1945 by C. K. Capon, P. L. Cocke, M. H. Cooke-Yarborough, L. M. de Syllas, J. M. Grice and M. A. R. Powers. Their rubber factory at Brynmawr, South Wales (1949), with its repetition of simple but powerful shapes, gave the first indication of the feeling for inally

which characterizes the firm's style and announced their pragmatic, modernist-intoned approach to design. This was subse-

sculptural effect

Art Deco, which borrowed

its

name from

the

'Exposition Internationale des arts decor.it its et industriels modernes' held m Paris in [925, developed rapidly from being a uniquely

French phenomenon to become an international fashion in design, interior decoration and architecture. As a synthetic form of stylization,

mediating between the avant garde and tradition, it absorbed impulses from *Cubism, other and "^Expressionism *Futurism,

movements. 17

Art Deco In

the

French architecture Art Deco appeared

most varied

guises: pseudo-purist in

let-Stevens' residential

complex

in

*Mal-

in the

Rue

Mallet-Stevens in Paris (1926—7), a style-conscious offspring of Cubist thought which draws markedly on *Le Corbusier's formal vocabulary; opulent, luxuriant, and frankly ornamenin

tal

at

du Collecwhere

the Paris exhibition of 1925,

pyramidal

the

Pavillon

Patout's

Pierre

tionneur

massing

predominates

over

structural expression; decidedly arid in Patout's

house in the Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clement at Boulogne-sur-Seine (1929), which is articulated

by

clear cubic forms; and, finally, idealistic-

technological in *Chareau and Bijvoet's Mai-

son de Verre in Paris (1928-32), which points clearly beyond Art Deco as the expression of a bourgeois fashion for the avant garde in the radical nature of its machine metaphor. Elsewhere in Europe, Art Deco was integrated with existing architectural traditions such as the School of *Amsterdam in Holland (Bijenkorf department store in The Hague by

*Kramer, 1924—5), as well as with the legacy of Frank Lloyd *Wright, or with Expressionism in Germany (Paula Modersohn-Becker House in the Böttchergasse, Bremen, by Bernhard Hoetger, 1926). Art Deco's stylistic flourishing is to be found in the *USA, where a scenographic architecture of highly decorative facades was launched through the use of polychromy and ornamentation (modernistic as well as historicizing). There, Art Deco mediated between the tradition of the French *Ecole des Beaux-Arts and

modern

constructional techniques in

its

distinc-

between skeleton and cladding. It combined influences derived from skyscraper Gothic (Cass Gilbert), Art Nouveau ornament (*Sullivan), traditionalism (Eliel *Saarinen) and the emerging ^International Style, a melange best exemplified by Art Deco's American icon, William van Alen's Chrysler Building in New tion

York

D

NM

(1928-30).

Art Deco, Minneapolis 1971; Cervin, and Bletter, Rosemarie

Hillier, Bevis,

Robinson, Haag, Skyscraper

Style,

New York

1975.

Rob MalletMallet-Stevens, Paris (1926-^7)

Art Deco. Residential complex by Stevens in the

Rue

Art Deco. The Chrysler Building, William van Alen (1928-30)

[8

New

York, by

Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau. An individualist and highly romantic reaction to the currents of ^eclecticism and academic classicism (*Ecole des BeauxArts) in late 19th-century architecture, Art a diverse phenomenon which most of Europe and, some historians argue, even North America between 1890 and 1910. Known at the time under a variety of rubrics which reflect its sources in the investigations of individual architects and the specific contexts of various national traditions. It was known for instance in England at the time as the 'modern style'; in ^Belgium as the coup defouet

Nouveau was affected

(eel) style (from the flexible introduced by *Horta), or the style des Vingt (in view of the important part played by the group Les Vingt led by Octave Maus); in

(whiplash) or paling

line

page for Dominical by van de Velde, 1892). Next came architecture, represented by the house which Victor Horta built in Brussels in 1 892-3 for the engineer Tassel, a key work of the new style, which was to find a dazzling counterpart a few years later in the Elvira studio in Munich by August *Endell (1897-8, detitle

stroyed).

Among

the most characteristic archiof Art Nouveau, albeit widely purpose and plastic expression,

tectural products

differing

in

were: the houses built by Paul Hankar in

works of Willem Th. Sluyterman (1864— 1940), (1863-193 1) and L. A. H. Wölfin the *Netherlands; Guimard's Castel Beranger (1897-8), entrances to Metro stations and the auditorium

Brussels (1893-1900); the

Kromhout

Germany it was called the Jugendstil, from the Munich periodical Jugend; in France it was known variously as the style nouille (noodle style), style

Guimard

*Guimard,

who

(after the architect Henri designed the decorative entrances to the Paris Metro stations in 1899), or Art Nouveau. The Austrians named it the Secessionsstil (after the Viennese Secession group, led from 1897 on by the painter Gustav

Klimt and the architects *Hoffmann and *01brich); in Italy floreale;

and

historicist

in

it

was the

stile

Liberty or

Spain modernisme.

(*historicism)

The

stile

anti-

polemic often ob-

scured a considerable debt to ornamental and

which had been initially conducted within the context of the revival styles, as for instance in the case of the various theories of finding the geometric or organic principles underlying all historical styles so as to structural research

use those principles in turn as the starting point

new, 'modern' style. Often referred to simply as the style 1900, Art Nouveau expresses an essentially decorative trend that aims to highlight the ornamental value of the curved line, which may be floral in origin (Belgium, France) or geometric (Scot-

for defining a

land,

Austria).

This line gives

rise

to

two-

dimensional, slender, sinuous, undulating and invariably asymmetrical forms. The applied

were the first to be affected (textiles by William Morris, 1880; wood-engraved title page to Wren's City Churches by Arthur H. Mackmurdo, 1883; vases by Emile Galle, 1884; ornamental lettering by Fernand Khnopff and Georges Lemmen, 1 890-1; mural tapestry The Angels' Vigil by Henry *van de Velde, 1893; furniture by Gustave Serrurier-Bovy, 1891; arts

Art Nouveau. The (1897-8), by August

Elvira

Photo Studio, Munich

Endcll: facade and staircase

n;

Art Nouveau

of the Humbert de

Romans

building (1902,

destroyed) in Paris; Horta's Maison du Peuple (1896—9, destroyed) and the former Hotel

Solvay (1 895-1900) in Brussels; the overhead Stadtbahn station in the Karlsplatz, Vienna (1897) by Otto * Wagner; and the Museum

Folkwang, with Velde,

at

Hagen

interior

design by van de

(1900-2).

All these works are the result of a deliberate attempt to put an end to imitations of past styles; in its place is offered a florid type of architecture which exploits craft skills, using coloured materials (faience cabochons, stoneware, terracotta panels, stained glass), exotic veneers,

stonework,

Art Nouveau. Hotel Solvay, 1900), by Victor Horta

Art Nouveau.

Brussels (1895-

Karlsplatz Station of the Vienna

Stadtbahn (1897) by Otto

Wagner

moulded

and tapered brackets in wrought iron; and burgeoning with asymmetrical door- and window-frames, bow and horseshoe windows, etc. The common denominator of these diverse works is then more a new conception of the relationship between surface and ornament, rather than a change in spatial expression of plan. An exception to this may, however, be found in buildings designed in the tradition of the English country house (*Voysey, *Mackintosh), with their principle of building from inside to out; and the Continental examples based on them (Olbrich's houses on the Mathildenhöhe at Darmstadt). In the later phases of Art Nouveau, facade decoration was accompanied by a powerful plastic treatment of the whole building, either by the dramatic accentuation of individual parts of the structure (Glasgow Art School, 1 898-1909, by Mackintosh) or by the sculptural modelling of the whole building mass (Werkbundthcater, Cologne, 19 14 by van de Velde; Casa Mila, grilles,

balconies,

Barcelona, 1905-10, by *Gaudi). Art Nouveau was first and foremost an aesthetic undertaking, based on social theories

and inspired by aesthetes such as Ruskin, Morris and Oscar Wilde. It was born of a reaction to the rise of industrialism, and from a determination to create a new style, in view of the belief that the 19th century had been stylistically impotent. Its proponents sought a style which would affect the design of objects of everyday use as well as architecture and leave its mark ultimately on the decor and surroundings of daily life. In terms of its theory, from the ethical and political point of view Art Nouveau appears as an attempt to integrate art with social life; in practice, and from the cultural point of view, however, it quietly assumes the manner of a reactionary bourgeois movement. Art Nou-

Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau. Casa Mila, Barcelona (1905-10), by Antonio Gaudi

veau

man from

and surface ornament, and by basing all its efforts on theories of decoration, it was a stylistic recuperation with relatively few reper-

the

cussions in subsequent architectural develop-

of a technological milieu. Faced with the machine, which it regarded as the work of the devil, it aimed at renewing contact with nature and rehabilitating the tool in its role of the 'lengthener of the hand': by the same token,

architects of the Art such as Mackintosh, *Behrens and the Viennese masters became pioneers of modern architecture, it is true, but with their forward-looking buildings they overstepped

tried, in effect, to relieve

pressures

it

obliged the

artist to

express himself in the

margin of the living forces of technology. On the other hand, it claimed to be able to fashion a three-dimensional universe, independent of the fundamental support of the true creators of the epoch (Cezanne, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Munch) or rather, only borrowing the most external trappings of their inspiration. The point may thus be seen at which Art Nouveau (in the midst of its romantic, sentimental and social outbursts) posed in contradictory terms the problem of the social relations of art. It may also be seen

how

it

produced, in

all

fields,

a

real

severance between life and thought, and partially destroyed the 'relation between plant and soil'.

Art

Nouveau may

compared by confounding

thus be

electrical short circuit;

to an style

ments.

Distinguished

Nouveau

style,

the frontiers its

D

which the

style

adherents.

Schmalenbach,

had imposed upon RXD/BB

F., Jugendstil.

Ein Beitrag zu

Theorie und Geschichte der Flächenkunst,

Würz-

burg 1934; Madsen, Stephan Tschudi, Soun es q) Art Nouveau, New York 1956; Scling, Helmut (ed.), Jugendstil. Der Weg ins 20. Jahrhundert, Heidelberg 1959; Selz, Peter, and Constantmc, Mildred (eds.), Art Nouveau. Art and Design at the Turn of the Century, New York 1959; Gans, Louis, Nieuwe Kunst. De Nederlandse Bijdrage tot Utrecht i960; Cassou, Jean, Langui, Emil, and Pevsner, Nikolaus. Durchbruch zum 20. Jahrhundert. Kunst und Kultur der de 'Art Nouveau',

Jahrhundertwende, Munich 1962; Schmutzler, Koben, Jugendstil-Art Nouveau. Stuttgart 1962; Russell, Frank (ed.), Art

London

1979-

Nouveau

Architecture,

Arts and Crafts

Arts and Crafts. Movement which developed in reaction to the cheap, machine-produced kitsch which inundated the furnishing and architecture market of the mid- 19th century in the wake of the Industrial Revolution. Much inspired by the writings of Pugin and especially of Ruskm. the English architect and social reformer William *Morris was one of the first to strive for a revival of handicraft. The symbolical start was the Red House (1859) at Bexley Heath, Kent, which Morris commissioned after his marriage from his friend Philip *Webb. Seen as an escape from the tasteless and 'false' ^eclecticism of contemporary design, the Red House represented the first and most important attempt to renew domestic architecture within the Gothic Revival. However, this individualistic response was not sufficient for the socially-engaged Morris (he was a member of Engel's Social Democratic Federation and later, in 1891, wrote the socialist Utopian novel, Newsfrom Nowhere). In 1 861, on the model of Henry Cole's Art Manufactures, Morris founded, together with a group of painters and architects, the firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Co., to produce highquality wallpapers, woven and printed fabrics, tapestries, and stained glass. Subsequently Morns ran the company alone as Morris & Co. The products of the Morris workshops, as successful as they were exclusive, were oriented towards medieval models, as well as more exotic patterns drawn from that very same Grammar of Ornament by Owen Jones which was subsequently to provide a source of inspiration to *Sullivan and *Wnght in America. With this undertaking, Morris laid the foundations for a far-reaching movement, which aimed at the renewal of handicraft and was characterized by moralizing undertones. In place of the 'ugly' and 'decadent' domination of the machine, he advocated an anachronistic anti-machine stance. In spite of all their social claims and intentions, however, the adherents of the Arts and Crafts philosophy were not prepared to confront the dilemma that handicraft was far more costly than machine production and that their handsome products were indeed largely beyond the means of the wide spectrum ot the very public for whom they were originally intended.

This was equally the case for the associations artists that grew up within Morris's circle: from the Century Guild of

of architects and

22

Arts and Crafts. Red House. Bexlev Heath. K« (1859), by Philip Webb

founded in 1882 by Ruskin's pupil Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo and a small group of friends; to St George's Art Society, which was started by five students of *Shaw, including *Lethaby and Edward S. Prior, in 1883 and established one year later as the Art Workers' Guild. From this group there developed in 1888 a parallel organization, the Arts and Crafts Artists,

Exhibition Society, which also represented Morris's workshops; it was here for the first

time that the term 'Arts and Crafts' was introduced. Also in 1888, the Guild and School of Handicraft was founded by C. R. *Ashbee, an independent disciple of Ruskin. This was to represent a highpoint ot the movement and would continue to flourish until 1905. In the

enon of

reality that

came

much-hated phenomhad become a could no longer be ignored. Ashbee

meantime

the

industrial production

to terms

with

only faint-heartedly, theory the notion of collaboration with the machine. He thus introduced the methods of industrial design, which had seemed, since the Crystal Palace of 1851, predetermined for the Machine era. The Arts and Crafts Society maintained a far more conservative position. Its first president, Walter Crane, who was personally allied with the romantic-regressive aesthetic of the Pre-

and accepted

it,

if

at least in

Raphaelites, was at first opposed to any opening-up of the movement. Thus the young C. R. *Mackintosh and the entire Glasgow School (*Art Nouveau) were categorically excluded

from

their exhibitions. In

architects figured

among

any

the

numerous members and

case,

first

Ashbee exhibitors, including Ashbee, Prior, *Voysey, George Walton, *Lutyens and W. R. Lethaby, the leading promoter and, in 1894, the first Director of the Central School of Arts and Crafts in London. The effects of the Arts and Crafts movement were, for all its contradictions, as profound as they were lasting and far-reaching. In *Great Britain a notably high professional standard was established in its circles, which was characterized by an intensive reformatory involvement with the problem of the house. It was here that the concept of the house as a 'total work of art' was developed. It was also out of the theoretical principles and architectural statements of the Domestic Revival that the Garden City movement developed. This was launched in 1898 by Ebenezer *Howard with his book Tomorrow A ,

Peaceful Path to Social

Reform (retitled in the second edition of 1902 Garden Cities of Tomorrow).

The

battle against the stylistic revivals

the 19th century, the rejection

of

of

illusionistic

modernism. He was one of the founding members in 1933 of the Modern Architecture Research Group (*MARS), and architectural

subsequently was active

as

a

consultant to

*Lubetkin and bis *Tecton group. Other examples of his engineering activities are the school at Hunstanton, Norfolk (1949, 1952-4) by Alison and Peter *Smithson, the Sydney Opera House (1956-74) by *Utzon, the multifunctional Hall for the 1975 Bundesgartenschau

Garden Show) in Mannheim (1973-4, by Carlfried Muttschler, Joachim Langner and Frei *Otto, as well as the Centre Pompidou in Paris (1971-7) by *Piano and (Federal

1974-5)

*Rogers. Not only architects,

numerous

Arup

as engineers,

but also

as

Associates have undertaken

university buildings.

The

pedestrian

bridge over the River Wear in Durham (1963) is an example of A.'s personal design work. AM Arup Journal (London); 'Arup's First Ten Years', Architecture Plus (New York), Novem-

D

ber—December

1974; 'Arup Associates', Archi-

preference for closed

and Urbanism (Tokyo), December 1977; Brawne, Michael, Arup Associates, London

for that break

I983-

representation in decorative design and the

form provided the basis with the aesthetic of the 19th century that was advocated by artists at the turn of the century. Finally, the idea of a reunion of art, handicraft and architecture was introduced in Germany, through the agency of *Muthesius, into the circle of the ^Deutscher

Werkbund.

GV/VML

D

Pevsner, N., The Sources of Modern Architecture and Design, London and York

New

1968;

,

Pioneers of

William Morris

to

tecture

Ashbee, Charles Robert,

London

b.

London 1863, d. by the ideas

1942. Strongly influenced

of Ruskin and *Morris, A. founded the Guild and School of Handicraft in 1888, a highpoint in the *Arts and Crafts movement. His own works included several houses in Cheyne Walk, London (1897-1904), and Norman Chapel

Modern Design from

Walter Gropius,

Harmonds-

worth 1974; Davey, P., The Arts and Movement in Architecture, London 1980.

Crafts

Arup, Ove (Nyquist), b. Newcastle-uponTyne 1895. A. studied at first philosophy and mathematics and then civil engineering. From 1934 to 1938 he was Director and Chief Engineer of the English engineering firm J. L. Kier and Company. Then, in 1938 he founded, together with his cousin, the engineering and consulting firm Arup and Arup, which he left in 1946 to open an independent engineering office, active since 1949 under the name Ove Arup and Partners. Finally in 1963 he launched, together with the architect Philip Dowson and others, the interdisciplinary planning firm Arup Associates, which today employs a staff of over 1,600 in Great Britain and a further 1,000 worldwide. From early on, A. was inclined to

Ashbee. Houses London (1904)

in

Cheyne Walk (nov

39 and 38),

23

Asli

House, Broad Campden, Glos. (1906). His was especially felt through his elegant design for craft objects. He was active as an urban planner in Egypt during World War I and later in Jerusalem (*Israel). In 1924 he returned influence

VML

to Kent.

D

Ashbee,

Houses,

CK., A Book of Cottages and Little

London

1906; Service, Alistair, Edwar-

London

1978; C. R. Ashbee and Guild of Handicraft (exhibition catalogue), Cheltenham 198 1.

dian Architecture, the

Aslin, Charles Herbert,

b.

Sheffield 1893, d.

1959. Studied at Sheffield University Department of Architecture. After a career in various local

authority

offices,

A. became County

Architect for Hertfordshire in 1945, where he stayed till his retirement in 1958.

War

At the end of World

shortage of school places in

II,

an acute

Hertfordshire,

together with lack of manpower and craftsmen

moved

in the building trade,

A. to tackle the

problem as a quasi-military 'planned operation'. Taking advantage of the production potential of light industry, built up during the war, he organized a system of school prefabrication from factory-made parts, but with sufficient flexibility to allow each school to be treated individually.

The

prototype

was

Cheshunt

Primary

School, built in 1946 on an 8 ft 3 in. (2- 52 m) grid. In 1947, eleven schools were projected on a serial production basis, with flat roofs, solid

and standardized stanchions and beam connections; in 1948/9, development proceeded on twenty-one primary schools, while the 1947 schools were being completed. The hundredth

floors,

school of this type was opened in 1955 (*Great

HM

Britain).

D

Aslin, C. H., 'Specialized

school construction', JRIBA,

developments

November

in

1950;

Twist, K. C, Redpath, J. T. and Evans, K. C, 'Hertfordshire Schools Development', Architects' fournal (London), 12 and 26 May 1955, 19 April and 2 August 1956.

Asplund. Restaurant building

Asplund, (Erik) Gunnar, b. Stockholm 1885, d. Stockholm 1940. Asplund was one of the most prominent Swedish architects of the first

at the

Stockholm

Exhibition (1930)

Asplund. Stockholm South Cemetery: Crematorium (1935-40)

work is of historical combining of traditional and

half of the 20th century; his significance for

modern tural

at at

He

received his architecTechnical College in the Free Architectural Acad-

architecture.

training

Stockholm and 24

its

the

emy founded

there in

1910 by *Almqvist,

*Lewerentz and others. From 1931 to 1940 he was a professor at the Technical College.

Atelier 5 In 1914 A., in collaboration

won

with Lewerentz,

the competition for the layout of Stock-

holm South Cemetery, where he later built the Woodland Chapel (1918-20). Other works of these years include the

holm

Snellman

villa in

Djurs-

Cinema (1922-3) Stockholm City Library (1924-7). The

much admired

at

the time of

is rectangular in shape, with depends for aesthetic effect on a balance of verticals and horizontals and a restrained use of classical decoration. The City Library is symmetrical in plan with a large

construction,

side balconies;

it

central cylindrical lending

area enclosed

on

by rectangular volumes containing reading and study rooms and offices. The work

three sides

is

Gunnar Asplund, Architect, Stockholm 1950; de Mare, Eric, Gunnar Asplund, A Great Modern Architect, London 1955; Wrede, S., The Architecture of Erik Gunnar Asplund, Boston, Mass. 1980. Kjell (eds.),

1885-1940,

(1917-8), the Skandia

and the Skandia Cinema, its

Odeen,

classicist in

conception, recalling ultimately

theme of the merging of cube and on simplicity and severity was a trend of the time. However, had A. continued designing in the style of the cinema and library, he might have been regarded simply as just another competent traditionalist. With the buildings for the Stockholm Exhibi-

Atelier 5. Group of architects founded in Berne by Erwin Fritz, Samuel Gerber, Rolf Hesterberg, Hans Hostettler and Alfredo Pini. In 1983 Atelier 5 included twelve partners: Jacques Blumer, Christian Flückiger, Anatole du Fresne, Ralph Gentner, Christiane Heimin 1955

gartner,

Rolf Hesterberg, Hans

Lanini,

Alfredo Pini, Denis Roy,

Hostettler, Pier

Bernard

Thormann. The strong ence of *Le Corbusier on the group's Stebler and Fritz

influ-

early

work is evident in the Halen housing estate near

the ageless

Berne (1955—61), which

cylinder; the accent

at La Sainte-Baume (1948), in which rows of terrace houses were rolled out almost like a carpet on the landscape. Their early style, dominated by a unified formal vocabulary derived from *New Brutalism, gave way increasingly in the early 1970s to a tendency to derive formal expression from the particular demands of the commission and the local context. Examples of this are the Thalmatt housing estate at Herrensch wanden, near Berne (1967-72), and the Stuttgart University Dining Hall (1970-6) at Stuttgart-

of 1930, he revealed himself as a modernist, handling glass and steel expressively to achieve a great lightness of effect. This is seen especially in the Paradise Restaurant, with its tion

skilfully

slender

supports,

glass

walls,

circular

glass

tower and large coloured sunblinds, elements which were to be basic to 'the new architecture' in

Vaihingen. Bezzola, Leonardo,

D

Europe.

After this exhibition A. designed the Bredenberg store in Stockholm (1933-5), which has

something of the lightness of the exhibition

is

based on the master's

unrealized project for a housing estate

AM Thormann- Wirz,

Es-

Wohnort Halen. Eine Architekturreportage, Teufen 1964; 'Atelier 5 Terrace Houses: Flamatt, Halen & Brugge', ther,

and Thormann,

Fritz,

buildings; the State Bacteriological Laboratory,

Global Architecture (Tokyo), no. 23, 1973; 'Ate-

Stockholm (1933-7); the Gothenburg City Hall Extension (1934-7), tne design of which is modern in spirit yet harmonizes in scale with the original building in the classical style; and lastly the Crematorium, Stockholm South Cemetery (1935-40). The group of buildings consists of three chapels, the crematorium and the columbarium; at the main entrance is a large portico with numerous plain shafts. Simple, dramatic and original as is the design for a purpose of this kind, it is essentially Greek in

liers',

conception, the feeling of repose that

it

Bauen

+ Wohnen (Munich),

35, nos. 7/8,

1980, pp. I4-77-Atelier 5. Halen housing (I955-6I)

estate,

near Berne

creates

depending on the relationship of verticals and horizontals; it demonstrates clearly Asplund's conviction that the classical Greek architectural sense can harmonize with the modern spirit. AW D Zevi, Bruno, E. Gunnar Asplund, Milan 1948; Holmdahl, Gustav, Lind, Sven Ivar, and 25

Athens Charter

Athens Charter. At its fourth congress, held in 1933 on a cruise between Marseilles and Athens aboard the Patris II, the *CIAM organization undertook a systematic investigation of thirtythree major cities; the result was the 'Principles of the Fourth Congress'. These were concerned with the 'functional city' (as it had been defined two years earlier at a meeting in Berlin) and were based principally on *Le Corbusier's ideas (which he revised in 194 1 and published anonymously in 1943 as a book under the title La Charte d' Athene s. One of the six basic principles was the distribution and ordering of the four primary functions of the city (residential, work, free-time and traffic), which established the urban planning of modernism on a simple formula at once concise and, arguably, illconceived.

VML

D

CIAM, La

[Le Corbusier], Urbanisme des

Charte d'Athenes, Paris 1943 (English ed.: The Athens Charter, New York 1973).

Austria. As the capital of a multi-nation state, Vienna had, by the late 19th century, developed, even in architecture, that polyglot character and that emphatic consciousness of language, which have remained typical of the cultural

life

of the

city to this day.

This social

pluralism was reflected in the multiplicity of

and trends. Otto *Wagof Gottfried *Semper's will architect of the epoch of the

architectural schools ner, the executor

and the last Viennese Ringstraße, introduced the new approaches of the Secession (*Art Nouveau) and the seeds of architectural modernism into the broad current of Viennese classicism. Wagner's empirical positivism, got up in the slogan-like

doctrine of a 'Nutzstil' (functionalist style) and

united with a solid

artistic training,

endowed his

school with the legendary reputation that enjoys.

To

cite his

it still

most important pupils

is

Austria. Palm House in the Burggarten. Vienna (1902-4). by Friedrich

Ohmann

Austria. Project for the (1910-11),

26

XXIInd

by Otto Wagner

District.

Vienna

to

Austria

Austria. Sanatorium Josef

at

Purkersdorf (1902) by

Hoffmann

Austria. Steiner House, Vienna (1910), by Adolf

Loos

demonstrate the geographical extent of

his

Vienna were Hermann Aichinger, Leopold Bauer, Karl *Ehn, Max Feilerer, Franz and Hubert Geßner, Josef *Hoffmann, Emil Hoppe, Marcel Kammerer, Oskar Laske, Ernst Lichtblau, Rudolf Perco, Josef Plecnik (later in Prague and Laibach [now Ljubljana]), Heinrich Schmid and Otto Schöntal; in the provinces Mauriz Balzarek (Linz) and Wunibald Deininger (Salzburg). Working in Prague were Josef Chochol, Bohumil Hübschmann, Pavel Janäk and Jan Kotera - the central figures of Czech *Cubism. Similarly, influence:

active

in

significance for later developments.

schools

emerged

From

these

the critical intellectuals of

Viennese architecture, such

as

Josef Frank and

(Zagreb) and Giorgio Zaninovich to be major influential figures in their native countries. Rudolph *Schindler's

Oskar Strnad, who later, as teachers at the Kunstgewerbeschule (today Hochschule für angewandte Kunst) along with Hoffmann and Heinrich *Tessenow, were to exercise a great influence on the Viennese scene, and in

work

particular within the

Istvän

Benko-Medgyaszay (Budapest), Viktor

Kovacic

(Trieste)

were

in California

is

well

known.

In addition,

although they were not Wagner's pupils, Max Fabiani (Vienna and Görz) and J. M. *01brich (Vienna,

Darmstadt

and

Düsseldorf)

were

by him. Wagner's opposite number was Friedrich Ohmann, a native of Prague and director of the

strongly influenced

second 'special class' at the Akademie der bildenden Künste. Today, his romanticizing, atmospheric and emotionally charged architecture seems a more direct reflection of the Viennese fin-de-siecle, than does the optimistic forward-looking ethos of Wagner. The conservative schools (such as that of Karl König) at the Technische Hochschule also had a particular

Werkbund.

Adolf *Loos was naturally a architectural

debate,

focal point

especially

after

of the 1897

through his writings. Loos was at once an innovator and a traditionalist, a critical voice within his medium, as were Ins friends Karl Kraus and Arnold Schönberg. He discussed architecture as a cultural phenomenon and m relation to society. His thinking, as contradictory and fascinating as the city which he both hated and loved, still provides the stimulus for

any Viennese architectural discussion The architecture of the [920s, almost exclusively determined by the housing programmes of the Viennese municipal authorities, was

Austria

unquestionably dominated by the School of Otto Wagner. The architecture of the 'Superblocks' derived from a strong typology of the apartments, a labour-intensive building tech-

nology

(to

counteract unemployment), from

the expression of planned urban

form and from

language of detail. The revolutionaries of the Wagner School became pragmatists who understood how to clothe the new politically provocative building types so as to convey an appropriate sense of architectural continuity. In opposition, Loos, Josef Frank, Franz Schuster and others involved themselves in the residents' movement. The Viennese Werkbundssiedlung (under the general direction of Frank, 1932) once again united all progressive forces with a programme to provide for the workers housing that combined the maximum of 'bourgeois culture' with a minimum of building costs. A new school began to exercise its influence a pluralistic

in

Vienna after World

War

I

Austria. Parish Community Centre. Puchenau near Linz (1973—6). bv Roland Rainer

(^Behrens, *Holz-

meister, Tessenow, as well as Strnad

and Frank).

At the same time Vienna witnessed

a

loosening

Austria. Interior of the branch bank of the Zentralsparkasse der Gemeinde Wien at Floridsdorf (1970-4), by Friedrich Kurrent and Johannes Spalt

of its hold over the regions, accelerated by the political opposition ('Red Vienna'). In the Tyrol, under the influence of Munich, there developed a regional modernism (Franz Baumann, Theodor and Wilhelm Nikolaus Prachensky, Lois Weizenbacher); Wunibald Deininger and Clemens Holzmeister dominated in Salzburg, Mauriz Balzarck, Julius Schulte, Kurt Kühne and Hans Steineder in Upper Austria. A small but effective opposition was

formed in Styria by Hubert Eicholzer, Max Lukas and Rambald von Steinbiichel-Rheinwall. Finally in Vienna after 1934 the progressive forces went over to the defensive. After Josef Frank's emigration and the dissolution of the Werkbund (1934), only Ernst A. Plischke

was

able to maintain a firm position in the face

of regionalism and a new national romanticism. With the exception of several industrial enterprises and numerous 'Südtiroler Siedlungen' (South Tyrolean housing estates), the architecture of National Socialist Austria dating from the period of the 'Austrofascist' Assembly (1934-8) established by the Hitler regime repre-

World War II many architects tried to pick up lost threads; among these were Clemens Holzmeister, who

sents a questionable legacy. After

returned Haerdtl,

from

Max

exile

Ankara, Oswald Eugen Wörle, Franz

in

Feilerer,

Schuster and Lois Welzenbachcr. In contrast to this,

28

Roland *Rainer

deliberately sought,

on

the one hand, to consolidate the 'consequences

and perceptions of modernism' and, on the other, to adapt the urban planning ideas of the English Garden City movement (*Howard) to new conditions. The architectural scene began to change in the wake both of Rainer's work as Vienna's city planner (1958—63) and of the contemporary buildings of Karl Schwanzer. Above all, the Arbeitsgruppe 4 (consisting of Wilhelm *Holzbauer, Friedrich Kurrent, Johannes Spalt and - for a short time - Otto Leitner) began in the 1950s to revive architectural debate through exemplary designs, exhi-

Austria

Austria. Vorarlberg Provincial Government

The

Building, Bregenz (1973-82), by Holzbauer and others

changes in Graz.

bitions

Wilhelm

and writings. At the same time they

mine Vienna's own architectural from Otto Wagner to Josef Frank. Thus the lessons of history were introduced early on in Vienna among a younger generation of architects and came to play a major role in architectural theory. Even today, this view of history continues to be the link between the diversified work of such architects as Johann Georg Gsteu, Wilhelm Holzbauer, Viktor Hufnagl, Gustav *Peichl, Hans Puchhammer, Anton Schweighofer, Günther Wawrik, Ottokar Uhl and others. While most of the members of this group were strongly influenced by Konrad *Wachsmann's Summer Seminars at Salzburg, in 1963 Hans *Hollein and Walter Pichler

began

to

history,

launched the Viennese functionalist critique. Far from Vienna, Pichler is building his 'Cult Places', a testimony to the fact that a 'universal meaning' is still possible in architecture. In the early 1960s Günther Feuerstein's ClubSeminar was a hothouse for architectural theory which gave birth to the activist and Utopian groups *Haus-Rucker-Co, *Coop Himmelblau, Zünd up— Salz der Erde, and Missing Link.

as

'wild'

1960s also spurred fundamental

On the one hand, teachers such

Friedrich Zotter, Karl

Raimund

Lorenz,

Hubert Hoffmann and Ferdinand Schuster guaranteed a continuity of development on which architectural co-operatives like the Werkgruppe Graz (Eugen Groß, Friedrich Groß-Rannsbach, Werner Hollomey, Hermann Pichler) and Team A Graz (Franz Cziharz, Dietrich Ecker, Herbert Missoni, Jörg Wallmüller) could build. On the other hand, there was the 'Graz School' in the stricter sense, with its expressive formal language, and also

such architects as" Günther Domenig, Eilfried Huth, Klaus Kada, Karla Kowalski, Michael Szyszkowitz, Heidulf Gerngroß and Helmut Richter who emerged from the studios of the

Technische Hochschule in Graz. The contemporary spectrum in Styria is further enriched by a broad movement for participatory construction (Huth) and a new form of regionalism. There are independent developments in other provinces, led in

Upper Austria by Roland

Ertl,

Klaus Nötzberger, Karl Odorizzi, Franz Riepl and the Werkgruppe Linz (Helmut Frohnwieser, Heinz Pammer,

August Kürmayr,

Edgar Telesko and Helmut Werthgarner; in Salzburg by Gerhard Garstenauer; in the Tyrol by Othmar Barth, Ekkehard Hörmann, Josef Lackner, Günther Norcr and Horst Parson; in 29

Aymonino

Austria. Head Sales Office of the Austrian Travel Bureau, Vienna (1976-8), by Hans Hollein

the architectural continuity that has been so

of the capital and above all a critical approach to architecture seen as a social art. FA D Schwanzer, Karl (ed.), Wiener Bauten, igoo bis heute, Vienna 1964; Uhl, Ottokar, Moderne Architektur in Wien. Von Otto Wagner bis heute, Vienna 1969; Graf, Otto Antonia, Die vergessene Wagnerschule, Vienna 1969; Neue Architektur in Österreich ^45—70, Vienna 1970; Sechs Architypical

Austria. The Favoriten branch in Vienna of the Zentralsparkasse der Gemeinde Wien (1975-9), by

Günther Domenig

vom Schillerplatz (exhibition catalogue), Vienna 1977; Bode, Peter M., and Peichl, tekten

Carinthia by Karl Hack, Manfred Kovatsch,

Gernot Kulterer and Felix Orsini-Rosenberg; and finally in the Vorarlberg region by a homogeneous 'Bauschule' represented by Hans Purin, Rudolf Wäger, Günther Wratzfeld and the younger architects Dieter Eberle and Markus Koch. All of these regional developments already bear witness to a strong selfdynamism. In Vienna a vibrant scene of 'minor architecture', which is especially bound up with the Viennese tradition of Loos and Frank, has developed in opposition to the commercial architecture of large office blocks. The new generation which has grown up in the charged field that lies between Arbeitsgruppe 4 and Hans Hollein has shown a particularly high level of architectural awareness. Luigi Blau, Hermann Czech, Igirien (Werner Appelt, Eberhard E. Kneissel, Elsa Prochaszka), Missing Link (Otto Kapfmger, Adolf Knschanitz) and Heinz Tesar, together with an even wider circle, will assure both the multiplicity of 30

Gustav, Architektur aus Österreich seit iq6o, Salzburg 1980; Achleitner, Friedrich, Österreichische Architektur im 20. Jahrhundert, 3 vols., Salzburg 1980-5; Architektur aus Graz, Graz 1981.

Aymonino,

Carlo, b.

Rome

1926. Studied at

the University of Rome; diploma 1950.

He was

an editor of Casabella-continuitä, 1959—64, and

became

a professor at the Istituto

di Architettura in

Universitario

Venice in 1968. Since 1981 he

has been an architectural consultant to the city authorities in

Rome.

In 1950, in the construction

INA-Casa

of the populist of Rome,

in the Tiburtino quarter

he shared the experience of Italian architectural neo-realism with members of the 'Rome School', such as Lodovico Quaroni and Marco *Ridolfi. Later he designed the residential complex 'Gallaratese 2' in Milan (built 196773; in collaboration with his son Maurizio, as well as with Giorgio Ciucci, Vittorio De Feo,

Azuma - and

Florence (1978; with Aldo Rossi)

numerous influenced

through

work

publications, A.'s

recent

architecture,

his

has greatly particularly

view of the city as a functionally integrated and historically created form. VML D Aymonino, C, La fortnazione del concetto di his

tipologia edilizia,

Venice 1965,

Origine e moderna, Padua 1965; 77 significato della cittä, Bari 1975; Lo studio dei sviluppo della

,

citta

,

,

fenomeni

Rome

urbani,

Aymonino',

'Carlo

1977;

Architecture and Urbanism (Tokyo),

February 1978.

Azuma,

Osaka 1933. Before Tokyo, A. was for many years head designer in Junzo Sakakura's office. He was a founding member of the *Architext group in 1971. A. seeks 'oppositional opening

Aymonino.

Gallaratese 2 residential complex, Milan (Aymonino and others; 1967-73)

Takamitsu,

his

own

harmonies' in

b.

office in

his architecture, that

not seek to resolve, but rather to Alessandro De Rossi, Mario Manieri-Elia and Sachin Messare). The rows of houses — one by Aldo *Rossi — are mostly seven storeys high and are arranged geometrically and urbanistically around an amphitheatre-shaped centre. The architects sought thus to recapture urban quali-

suburban area through a simultaneously strong and expressive multiplicity of formal elements and types. In the G. Marconi Technical School in Pesaro, built in 1970, the fundamental principles of *Rationalist architecture are independently worked out. ties in

this desolate

Through his role in city-centre planning schemes -Turin, Bologna (both 1962), Reggio Emilia (197 1; with Constantino Dardi) and

is

the har-

monic juxtaposition of opposites which he does engender tension. design philosophy is to

A

telling

stress in

order

example of

his

own

house in Tokyo (1967), a tall narrow concrete tower deliberately contrasted with the traditional single-storey buildings that surround it. In the Satsuki Kinhis

1 If ENCYCLOPEDIA OF 20TH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF 20TH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF 20TH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE GENERAL EDITOR: VIT...


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Contains thirty-six original essays by the celebrated Viennese architect, Adolf Loos (1870-1933). Most deal with questions of design in a wide range of areas, from architecture and furniture, to clothes and jewellery, pottery, plumbing, and printing; others are polemics on craft education and training, and on design in general. Loos, the great cultural reformer and moralisContains thirty-six original essays by the celebrated Viennese architect, Adolf Loos (1870-1933). Most deal with questions of design in a wide range of areas, from architecture and furniture, to clothes and jewellery, pottery, plumbing, and printing; others are polemics on craft education and training, and on design in general. Loos, the great cultural reformer and moralist in the history of European architecture and design was always a 'revolutionary against the revolutionaries'. With his assault on Viennese arts and crafts and his conflict with bourgeois morality, he managed to offend the whole country. His 1908 essay 'Ornament and Crime', mocked by an age in love with its accessories, has come to be recognised as a seminal work in combating the aesthetic imperialism of the turn of the century. Today Loos is recognised as one of the great masters of modern architecture....more

Paperback, (Studies in Austrian Literature, Culture, and Thought Translation Series), 204 pages

Published September 1st 1997 by Ariadne Press

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