Robert Frank Guggenheim Fellowship Application Essay

Several Tips to Help Photographers And Artists Who Are Applying For A Guggenheim Fellowship Award 

If you are a contemporary fine art photographer (or filmmaker, painter, writer or scholar), the first few weeks of September means applying for a Guggenheim Fellowship award.  The deadline is usually around the second week of September.

It’s one of the last of the “old-school” grants and one of the few left for individuals in a creative field, including photographers.  Its also one of the few anywhere that requires actual prints to be included as the work sample in the application, which I think is an excellent component–unlike most other awards where images are projected on a digital slide projector or on a screen.

Winning the Guggenheim Fellowship for contemporary fine art photographers used to be one of the highest honors, and still is extremely important.  Given the rise of crowd sourcing sites such as Kickstarter, however, getting a Guggenheim award is not what is once was.

The application process itself is arduous, as it should be: after all, at stake is $30,000 or more, depending on the year.  Usually, about 180 fellowships are awarded and I think about 4,000 apply in total.

It requires several things that make it difficult for a fine art photographer: four recommendations; actual prints; a written project plan; high competition.

Guggenheim Fellowship Recommendations

For the recommendations, I’ve been told its best to get a mixture of people that know you well but they should mostly be teachers who have won it before or curators.  I think–this is just my thought–that gallerists, dealers and collectors are less likely to be appreciated.  Very well known people might help, but they must know you well to give you a good recommendation.  Its possible that the recommendations only come into play when there is a close tie between two photographers.

Guggenheim Fellowship Work Sample for Photography

As for the body of work, it should be tight, well organized and cohesive.  In other words, your basic portfolio–again, just my thoughts.

Guggenheim Fellowship Proposal

The proposal I think should be brief at about one page, and is very important.  Surprisingly, very few Guggenheim Fellowship fine art photographer’s applications are available online anywhere, except for Robert Frank’s and maybe one other.  There are different approaches and styles to take when writing any grant proposal, but generally I think they should be jargon-free and easily readable.  State your plan clearly but perhaps make it personal in some way.

Guggenheim Fellowship Competition in Photography

As far as I can tell, there are about 300 to 400 photographers that apply each year, and only about five to seven or eight are awarded.  Getting into the Yale MFA Photography program is easier.

Guggenheim Fellowship Judges

Know one really knows who the judges are, and there seem to be a few for each category, such as photography.  Some seem to have an idea about who might be members of the committee, and looking at who’s won the awards over the years, there seems to have been a shift.

Recent Trends in Guggenheim Fellowship Photography Awards

Again, this is just my opinion, but there seems to have been a change in the type of photographers awarded grants over the last five years or so.  There seems to be an introduction of a documentary element which seems to be new, and the awards seem to be from more geographic regions.  There seems to be a mix of a few very established photographers with some up and coming artists, as well as a few very unknowns.

Should you apply and is it worth it?  Winning a Guggenheim Fellowship is one of the most prestigious awards for a fine art contemporary photographer, but you really must be ready and be a serious, working artist, in my opinion.


Posted in contemporary fine art photography, Photography, Photography Award, Steve Giovinco

Publications about Robert Frank

Books and Exhibition Catalogues

Alexander, Stuart. Robert Frank: A Bibliography, Filmography, and Exhibition Chronology 1946 – 1985. Tucson: Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona, in association with the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1986.

The Art of Photography. Life Library of Photography. New York: Time-Life Books, 1971.

Bezner, Lili Corbus. Photography and Politics in America: From the New Deal into the Cold War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Brookman, Philip, ed. Robert Frank: An Exhibition of Photography and Films, 1945 – 1977. Santa Cruz: Mary Porter Sesnon Art Gallery, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1978.

Brookman, Philip, ed. Robert Frank: Photographer / Filmmaker, Works from 1945 – 1979. Long Beach, CA: Long Beach Museum of Art, 1979.

Brookman, Philip, ed. Robert Frank: London / Wales. Zurich: Scalo; London: Thames & Hudson, in association with the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, DC, 2003.

Brookman, Philip, and Vicente Todolí. Robert Frank: Storylines. London: Tate Publishing, 2004.

Burger-Utzer, Brigitta, Stefan Grissemann, and Robert Frank. Frank Films: The Film and Video Work of Robert Frank. Zurich and Berlin: Scalo, 2003.

Codrescu, Andrei, and Terence Pitts. Reframing America: Alexander Alland, Otto Hagel & Hansel Mieth, John Gutmann, Lisette Model, Marion Palfi, Robert Frank. Tucson: Center for Creative Photography; Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995.

Cohen, Susan, and William S. Johnson. Horses, Sea Lions, and Other Creatures: Robert Frank, Dave Heath, Robert Heinecken, and John Wood. Belmont, MA: Joshua Press, 1986.

Day, Jonathan. Robert Frank's "The Americans": The Art of Documentary Photography. Briston, Chicago: Intellect, 2011.

Documentary Photography. Life Library of Photography. New York: Time-Life Books, 1972. Revised edition, Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1983.

Eskenazi, Jason. By the Glow of the Jukebox: The Americans List. New York: Red Hook Editions, 2012.

Eskildsen, Ute, ed. Robert Frank: Hold Still — Keep Going, Zurich: Scalo, 2001.

Frank, Robert, and Ute Eskildsen. Paris: A Short Return. Göttingen: Steidl, 2008.

Great Photographers. Life Library of Photography. New York: Time-Life Books, 1971.

Greenough, Sarah, and Philip Brookman, eds. Robert Frank: Moving Out. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art; Zurich: Scalo, 1994.

Hall, Lars, and Gunilla Knape, eds. Flamingo by Robert Frank. Gothenburg: Hasselblad Center, 1997.

Hibi, Yuichi. A Weekend with Mr. Frank. Tucson: Nazraeli Press, 2006.

Johnson, William S., ed. The Pictures Are a Necessity: Robert Frank in Rochester, NY, November 1988. Rochester Film and Photo Consortium Occasional Papers, no. 2. Rochester, NY: International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, 1989.

Katz, Paul. Robert Frank: “The Americans” and New York Photographs. New York: Sidney Janis Gallery, 1979.

Katz, Paul. “Robert Frank.” In Photography Venice ’79, 311 – 326. Venice and Milan: Gruppo Editoriale Electa; New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1979.

Lhamon, W. T. Deliberate Speed: The Origins of a Cultural Style in the American 1950s. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Livingston, Jane. The New York School: Photographs, 1936 – 1963. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1992.

Ming, Dodo Jin. Waiting for Mushroom: The Private Robert Frank and June Leaf. Zurich: Scalo; London: Thames & Hudson, 2001.

Osborne, Peter. Travelling Light: Photography, Travel, and Visual Culture. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2000.

Papageorge, Tod. Walker Evans and Robert Frank: An Essay on Influence. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery, 1981.

Perchik, Simon. The Snowcat Poems, 1980 – 1981, to the Photographs of Robert Frank. North Charleston: Linwood Publishers, 1985.

Robert Frank. Introduction by Rudolph Wurlitzer. Histoire de la Photographie. Paris: Robert Delpire; Fondation Nationale de la Photographie; Nouvel Observateur, 1976. Reprinted Millerton, NY: Aperture, 1976.

Robert Frank. Paris: Centre National de la Photographie, 1983. Reprinted New York: Pantheon Books; Paris: Centre National de la Photographie, 1985.

Robert Frank. Mostra Internationale. Rimini, Italy: Riminicinema, 1990.

Robert Frank. London: Thames & Hudson, 1991.

Robert Frank: Fotografias / Films 1948 – 1984. Valencia, Spain: Sala Parpalló; Institución Alfons el Magnànim, 1985.

Robert Frank: La photographie, enfin. Special issue of Les Cahiers de la Photographie, nos. 11 – 12. Laplume, France: Association de Critique Contemporaine en Photographie, 1983.

Robert Frank. Sobre Valencia 1950. Valencia, Spain: Sala Parpalló; Institución Alfons el Magnànim, 1985.

Robert Frank. Werkverzeichnis. Zurich: J. E. Wolfensberger; Kunsthaus Zürich, 1976.

Six Photographers: An Exhibition of Contemporary Photography. Urbana: College of Fine and Applied Arts, University of Illinois, 1961.

Soncini, Franca. Ideas: Fotos di Robert Frank. Milan: Alberto Aspesi, 1997.

Stahel, Urs, ed. Essays über Robert Frank. Göttingen: Steidl, 2005.

Steichen, Edward, ed. The Family of Man. Introduction by Edward Steichen. Prologue by Carl Sandburg. New York: Museum of Modern Art, distributed by Simon & Schuster, 1955.

Szarkowski, John. The Photographer’s Eye. New York: Museum of Modern Art, distributed by Doubleday, 1966.

Tannenbaum, Barbara, and David B. Cooper. Robert Frank and American Politics. Akron, OH: Akron Art Museum, 1985.

Trachtenberg, Alan, Peter Neill, and Peter Bunnell. The City: American Experience. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Tucker, Anne Wilkes, and Philip Brookman, eds. Robert Frank: New York to Nova Scotia. Boston: Little, Brown; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1986.

Turner, Peter, and Gerry Badger. Photo Texts. London: Travelling Light, 1988.

12 Photographers of the American Social Landscape. Waltham, MA: Poses Institute of Fine Arts, Brandeis University, 1967.

Weiermair, Peter, and Gerald Matt, eds. Americans 1940 – 2006, Amerika: Die soziale Landschaft 1940 bis 2006. Meisterwerke amerikanischer Fotografie. Vienna: Kunsthalle Wien; Bologna: Grafiche Damiani, 2006.

Weltausstellung der Photographie 1952. Lucerne: Genossenschaft Photoausstellung, 1952.

Westerbeck, Colin, and Joel Meyerowitz. Bystander: A History of Street Photography. Boston: Bulfinch Press, 1994.

Articles, Book Sections, Reviews

Alexander, Stuart. “Les Américains.” Sensible [Centre Régional de la Photographie, Nord Pas-de-Calais] 2 (1996): n.p.

Alexander, Stuart. “Robert Frank.” Katalog: Journal of Photography and Video 9, no. 4 (Fall 1997): 32 – 33.

“Les Américains.” Review of Les Américains. In Carrefour [Paris] 15, no. 740 (November 19, 1958): 14.

Baas, Valerie, and Nancy W. Barr. “Note on the Rarity and Care of Works by Robert Frank in the Detroit Institute of Arts.” Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts 80, nos. 1 – 2 (2006): 52 – 57.

Badger, Gerry. “From Humanism to Formalism: Thoughts on Post-War American Photography.” In American Images: Photography 1945 – 1980, edited by Peter Turner, 11 – 22. New York: Viking Press; London: Barbican Art Gallery, 1985.

Baetens, Jan. “Motifs of Extraction: Photographic Images on Book Covers.” History of Photography 29, no. 1 (2005): 81 – 89.

Baier, Lesley K. “Visions of Fascination and Despair: The Relationship between Walker Evans and Robert Frank.” Art Journal 41, no. 1 (Spring 1981): 55 – 63.

Barr, Nancy Watson. “Truth, Memory, and the American Working-Class City: Robert Frank in Detroit and at the Rouge.” Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts 76, nos. 1 – 2 (2002): 62 – 74.

Barrow, Thomas F. “A Letter with Some Thoughts on Photography’s Future.” Album, no. 6 (July 1970): 2 – 3.

Becker, Howard S. “Photography and Sociology.” Afterimage 3, nos. 1 – 2 (May / June 1975): 21 – 32.

Bennett, Edna. “Black and White Are the Colors of Robert Frank.” Aperture 9, no. 1 (1961): 20 – 22.

Bergengren, Kurt. “Fotograf påegna vägar vill bort från stelnad magasinstil.” Aftonbladet, January 30, 1962, n.p.

Blinder, Carolin. “ ‘A Kind of Patriotism’: Jack Kerouac’s Introduction to Robert Frank’s The Americans (1959).” In Writing and Seeing: Essays on Word and Image, edited by Rui Carvalho Homem, 235 – 244. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006.

“Books.” Review of The Americans. In Art and Artists 6, no. 4 (July 1971): 70.

“Books: General.” Review of The Americans. In New Yorker, May 14, 1960, 203 – 204.

“Books of the Year.” Review of The Americans. In Photography Annual 1961, edited by Bruce Downes, 198 – 203. New York: Ziff-Davis, 1960.

Braley, Duane. “Photo Books Not Always Pretty, Have Impact.” Review of The Americans. In Minneapolis Tribune, June 29, 1969, sec. E:10.

Brown, Geoffrey. “Robert Frank: Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography.” Flash Art 35, no. 226 (2002): 104.

Brumfield, John. “ ‘The Americans’ and The Americans.Afterimage 8, nos. 1 – 2 (Summer 1980): 8 – 15.

Bunnell, Peter C. “Robert Frank’s Fourth of July—Jay, New York.” In Inside the Photograph: Writings on Twentieth-Century Photography, 161 – 163. New York: Aperture; distributed by D.A.P., 2006. Originally published in Print Collector’s Newsletter 7, no. 3 (July / August 1976): 81.

Campbell, Neil. “Cold War ‘Containment Culture’ and Photography: Robert Frank’s The Americans and the 1950s.” In American Visual Cultures, edited by David Holloway and John Beck, 142 – 149. London and New York: Continuum, 2005.

Cascade, Rebecca. “This American Life.” Art and Auction 27, no. 2 (2004): 132, 134.

Caso, Paul. “Peinture américaine au Palais des Beaux-Arts.” Review of Les Américains. In Le Soir [Brussels], December 11, 1958, 2.

Cassell, James. “Robert Frank’s The Americans: An Original Vision Despite Tod Papageorge’s Challenge.” New Art Examiner 8, no. 10 (1981): 1, 8.

Caulfield, Patricia. “New Photo Books: The Americans.” Review of The Americans. In Modern Photography 24, no. 6 (June 1960): 32 – 33.

Cembalest, Robin. “Indelible Images.” ArtNews 88, no. 4 (April 1989): 174 – 179.

Chuang, Joshua. “When the Messenger Is the Medium: The Making of Walker Evans’s American Photographs and Robert Frank’s The Americans.Yale University Art Gallery Bulletin (2006): 109 – 123.

Claass, Arnaud. “Robert Frank et les avant-gardes.” Contrejour [Paris] 13 (October / November 1977): 22 – 25.

Coleman, A. D. “Latent Image: Robert Frank.” Review of The Americans. In Village Voice, May 1, 1969, 13.

“Contemporary Photographers: Robert Frank.” PSA Journal 33, no. 1 (January 1967): 27.

Cook, Jno. “Robert Frank’s America.” Afterimage 9, no. 8 (March 1982): 9 – 14.

Cook, Jno. “Robert Frank: Dissecting the American Image.” Exposure 24, no. 1 (1986): 31 – 41.

Cook, Jno. “The Robert Frank Coloring Book.” Creative Camera 8, no. 9 (1989): 48 – 51.

Cotkin, George. “Robert Frank’s Existential Vision.” In Existential America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003, 210 – 221. Originally published as “The Photographer in the Beat-Hipster Idiom: Robert Frank’s The Americans.” In American Studies 26, no. 1 (Spring 1985): 19 – 33.

Cousineau, Penny. “Robert Frank’s Postcards from Everywhere.” Afterimage 5, no. 8 (February 1978): 6 – 8.

Crane, Arnold H. “For the Photography Collector.” Review of The Americans. In Chicago Daily News, July 12, 1969, Panorama section, 9.

Deschin, Jacob. “Abstract Images: Display Arranged by Steichen Includes Variety of Experimental Work.” New York Times, May 6, 1951, sec. 2:15.

Deschin, Jacob. “European Pictures: Modern Museum Presents Collection by Steichen.” New York Times, May 31, 1953, sec. 2:13.

Deschin, Jacob. “Project Awards: Guggenheim Fellowships for Frank and Webb.” New York Times, May 1, 1955, sec. 2:17.

Deschin, Jacob. “Picture Annuals: American, German, and British Work Reviewed.” Review of U.S. Camera Annual 1958. In New York Times, December 1, 1957, sec. 2:21.

Deschin, Jacob. “Two-Man Exhibit: Photographs by Callahan and Frank at Museum of Modern Art.” New York Times, February 4, 1962, sec. 2:21.

Deschin, Jacob. “Photography: Camera Looks at America.” Review of The Americans. In New York Times, August 17, 1969, sec. 2:22.

Di Piero, W. S. “Not a Beautiful Picture: On Robert Frank.” In Out of Eden: Essays on Modern Art. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991, 179 – 198. Originally published in TriQuarterly 76 (Fall 1989): 146 – 165.

Enright, Robert. “Fragments of Memory.” Border Crossings 21, no. 3 (2002): 18.

Evans, Walker. “Robert Frank.” In U.S. Camera Annual 1958, edited by Tom Maloney, 90. New York: U.S. Camera Publishing Corp., 1957.

Frank, Robert. “A Statement. . . .” In U.S. Camera Annual 1958, edited by Tom Maloney, 115. New York: U.S. Camera Publishing Corp., 1957.

Frank, Robert. “Robert Frank: Letter from New York.” Creative Camera [London], no. 60 (June 1969): 202.

Frank, Robert. “Robert Frank: Letter from New York.” Creative Camera [London], no. 61 (July 1969): 234 – 235.

Frank, Robert. “Robert Frank: Letter from New York.” Creative Camera [London], no. 62 (August 1969): 272.

Frank, Robert. “Robert Frank: Letter from New York.” Creative Camera [London], no. 64 (October 1969): 340.

Frank, Robert. “Robert Frank: Letter from New York.” Creative Camera [London], no. 66 (December 1969): 414.

Fresnault-Deruelle, Pierre. “Les Américains de Robert Frank.” Revue française d’études américaines 39 (February 1989): 63 – 70.

Frizot, Michel. “Robert Frank: Ailleurs et maintenant.” Clichés [Brussels] 25 (April 1986): 48 – 53.

Gasser, Martin. “ ‘. . . really more like Russia, in feeling and look . . .’: Robert Frank und Amerika.” In Swiss, made. Die Schweiz im Austausch mit der Welt, edited by Beat Schläpfer, 79 – 92. Zurich: Scheidegger & Spiess, 1998.

Getlein, Frank. “Art: Beatniks and Beaux.” Review of The Americans. In New Republic, January 11, 1960, 21 – 22.

Gibson, Ralph. “Books: The Americans.” Review of The Americans. In Artforum 8, no. 9 (May 1970): 92.

Green, Jonathan. “The Americans: Politics and Alienation.” In American Photography: A Critical History 1945 to the Present, 80 – 93. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1984.

Grundberg, Andy. “Affirming and Dissident Visions of America.” New York Times, November 9, 1986, sec. 2:31.

Guerrin, Michel. “Sur la route de la mélancolie avec Robert Frank.” Le Monde, November 6, 2004, 29.

“Guggenheim Fellows in Photography.” In U.S. Camera Annual 1958, edited by Tom Maloney, 89. New York: U.S. Camera Publishing Corp., 1957.

Guimond, James. “The Great American Wasteland.” In American Photography and the American Dream. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991, 207 – 244.

Gutierrez, Donald. “Books: The Unhappy Many.” Review of The Americans. In Dissent 8, no. 4 (Autumn 1961): 515 – 516.

Hagen, Charles. “Candid Camera.” Artforum 24, no. 10 (Summer 1986): 23, 116 – 119.

Halter, Peter. “Ut Pictura Poesis: Reading Robert Frank’s The Americans as a Photographic Sequence.” In Literature and the Visual Arts in 20th-Century America, edited by Michele Bottalico, 43 – 65. Bari, Italy: Palomar, 2002.

Hinderaker, Mark. “The Family of Man and The Americans.Photographer’s Forum 2, no. 4 (September 1980): 22 – 28.

Hoberman, J. “On the Road Again.” Artforum International 45, no. 8 (2007): 89 – 90.

Hogan, William. “A Bookman’s Notebook: Photo Coverage of the Ugly American.” Review of The Americans. In San Francisco Chronicle, January 27, 1960, 25.

Holland, Patricia. “Robert Frank: Reinventing Memory.” Creative Camera, no. 359 (1999): 32 – 35.

Horak, Jan-Christopher. “Robert Frank: Daddy Searching for the Truth.” In Making Images Move: Photographers and Avant-Garde Cinema, 161 – 189. Washington, DC, and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997.

Jeffrey, Ian. “Robert Frank: Photographs from London and Wales, 1951.” In Creative Camera Inter-national Year Book 1975, edited by Colin Osman and Peter Turner, 10 – 36. London: Coo Press Ltd., 1974.

Jobey, Liz. “The Unamerican.” Independent on Sunday: Sunday Review, March 29, 1992, 8 – 10.

“John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellows in Photography 1937 – 1965.” Camera 45, no. 4 (April 1966): 2 – 66.

Johnson, William S. “Public Statements / Private Views: Shifting the Ground in the 1950s.” In Observations: Essays on Documentary Photography, edited by David Featherstone, 81 – 92. Carmel, CA: Friends of Photography, 1984.

Kinzer, H. M. “Today’s Best Picture Books.” Popular Photography 52, no. 5 (May 1963): 60 – 61.

Kornbluh, Barry. “Robert Frank.” Blad 4 (1995): 50 – 58.

Lalanne, Jean-Marc. “Rotterdam, on y retourne.” Cahiers du Cinéma, no. 522 (1998): 22.

Lambeth, Michel. “Books Reviewed: The Americans.” Review of The Americans. In Canadian Forum 40, no. 475 (August 1960): 120.

Lyons, Nathan. “Photographic Books.” In The Encyclopedia of Photography, vol. 14,edited by Willard D. Morgan, 2680 – 2688. New York: Greystone Press, 1963.

M. G. [Manuel Gasser]. “Kritisches zu zwölf neuen Photobüchern: Reportagen.” Review of Les Américains. In Du, March 1959, 80, 82.

Malcolm, Janet. “Slouching Towards Bethlehem, PA.” In Diana & Nikon: Essays on Photography, 125 – 145. New York: Aperture, 1997.

Maloney, Tom. “U.S. Camera 1958.” In U.S. Camera Annual 1958, edited by Tom Maloney, 124, 280. New York: U.S. Camera Publishing Corp., 1957.

Mann, Margery. “Photography.” Artforum 6, no. 2 (October 1967): 67 – 70.

Mann, Margery. “West: The Americans Revisited.” Camera 35 18, no. 10 (January 1975): 14, 74 – 75.

Marcus, Greil. “On the Road Again: Robert Frank Driving and Crying.” Artforum International 33 (1994): 52 – 57.

Martine, Claude. “Trois voyageurs nous livrent une Amérique préfabriquée.” Review of Les Américains. In Arts, Lettres, Spectacles, December 17 – 23, 1958, 3.

McGee, Robert. “Mabou Blues.” Border Crossings 18, no. 3 (1999): 54 – 56.

Millstein, Gilbert. “In Each a Self-Portrait.” Review of The Americans. In New York Times Book Review, January 17, 1960, 7.

Mitchell, W. J. T. “The Ends of American Photography: Robert Frank as National Medium.” In What Do Pictures Want? The Lives and Loves of Images, 272 – 293. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Mora, Gilles. “From The Family of Man (1955) to Robert Frank.” In The Last Photographic Heroes: American Photographers of the Sixties and Seventies, 12 – 17. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2007.

Nesterenko, Alexander, and C. Zoe Smith. “Contemporary Interpretations of Robert Frank’s The Americans.Journalism Quarterly 61, no. 3 (Autumn 1984): 567 – 577.

Nyren, Dorothy. “New Books Appraised: The Arts — Graphic Arts.” Review of The Americans. In Library Journal 85, no. 6 (March 15, 1960): 1104.

“An Off-Beat View of the U.S.A.: Popular Photography’s Editors Comment on a Controversial New Book.” Reviews of The Americans. In Popular Photography 46, no. 5 (May 1960): 104 – 106.

Palmer, Phil. “Powerful, Visual Statements of the World.” Review of The Americans. In San Francisco Chronicle, June 29, 1969, This World section, 33.

Papageorge, Tod. “From Walker Evans to Robert Frank: A Legacy Received, Embraced, and Transformed.” Artforum 19 (April 1981): 33 – 37.

Postwar European Photography. Exhibition Review.” U.S. Camera 16, no. 9 (September 1953): 37 – 42.

Rice, Shelley. “Some Reflections on Time and Change in the Work of Robert Frank.” Photo Review 13, no. 2 (Spring 1990): 1 – 9.

Richard, Paul. “Americans — Without Tricks.” Review of The Americans. In Washington Post, May 19, 1969, sec. B:5.

“Robert Frank’s Camera: Poetry of Americana.” Review of The Americans. In Chicago Daily News, May 3, 1969, Panorama section, 3.

Sandeen, Eric J. “Edward Steichen, Robert Frank, and American Modern-ism.” In Picturing an Exhibition: “The Family of Man” and 1950s America, 155 – 180. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995.

Sass, Ann. “Robert Frank and the Filmic Photograph.” History of Photography 22, no. 3 (Autumn 1998): 247 – 253.

Scarborough, John. “From Nature in the Raw to Life in the Raw.” Review of The Americans. In Houston Chronicle, June 8, 1969, Zest section, 11.

Schiffman, Amy M. “Politics as Unusual: Robert Frank.” American Photographer 13, no. 5 (November 1984): 52 – 57.

Scully, Julia, and Andy Grundberg. “Currents: American Photography Today.” Modern Photography 42, no. 10 (October 1978): 94 – 97, 196, 198, 200.

Searle, Leroy. “Poems, Pictures, and Conceptions of ‘Language.’” Afterimage 3, nos. 1 – 2 (May / June 1975): 33 – 39.

Shany, Ronit. “Bli Flash.” Monitin (May 1983): 54 – 56, 61, 63.

Shatz, Adam. “Robert Frank.” In American Rebels, edited by Jack Newfield, 61 – 72. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press; Nation Books, 2003.

Silberman, Robert. “The Americans in Europe: Text, Context, Reception.” In American Photographs in Europe, edited by Mick Gidley and David E. Nye, 243 – 254. Amsterdam: Vu University Press, 1994.

Stamm, Tad, Burt Keppler, and Barney Rosset. “Letters to the Editor: The Americans.Popular Photography 47, no. 1 (July 1960): 6.

Stevens, Nancy. “The Americans Revisited.” American Photographer 2, no. 6 (1979): 38 – 49.

Stimson, Blake. “Photographic Anguish and The Americans.” In The Pivot of the World: Photography and Its Nation, 105 – 136. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.

Stott, W. “Walker Evans, Robert Frank, and the Landscape of Dissociation.” Artscanada 31 (December 1974): 83 – 89.

Suter, Gody. “Zwölf neue Photobücher.” Review of Les Américains. In Das Buch,literary supplement of Die Weltwoche [Zurich], December 12, 1958, 25.

Sutherland, Elizabeth. “Robert Frank: Biography.” In The Encyclopedia of Photography, vol. 9, edited by Willard D. Morgan, 1,602 – 1,604. New York: Greystone Press, 1963.

Takata, Ken. “Toward an Elegance of Movement: Walker Evans and Robert Frank Revisited.” Journal of American Culture 12, no. 1 (1989): 55 – 64.

Vestal, David. “30 Years of Books That Shaped Photography” [Part II]. Popular Photography 60, no. 6 (June 1967): 88 – 89, 44.

“Views: Robert Frank.” Creative Camera, no. 65 (November 1969): 376.

Weiss, Margot. “Book Review [Reissue of Walker Evans’s American Photographs].” Infinity 11, no. 7 (September 1962): 13.

[White, Minor]. “Book Reviews: Three 1958 Annuals.” Review of U.S. Camera Annual 1958. In Aperture 5, no. 4 (1957): 172 – 173.

[White, Minor]. “Book Review: Les Américains.” Review of Les Américains. In Aperture 7, no. 3 (1959): 127.

Woodward, Richard B. “Where Have You Gone Robert Frank?” New York Times Magazine, September 4, 1994, 30 – 37.

Wyatt, Tom. “Being Frank.” Creative Review 17 (1997): 39.


Alexander, Stuart. “Robert Frank Discusses The Americans at George Eastman House, 17 and 18 August 1967.” Katalog: Journal of Photography and Video 9, no. 4 (Fall 1997): 34 – 43.

Béhar, Henri, and Michel Guerrin. “Un entretien avec le photographe et cinéaste américain Robert Frank hors cadre.” Le Monde, November 17, 1994, 1, 6.

Enright, Robert. “Frank Speaking: An Interview with Robert Frank.” Border Crossings 16, no. 4 (November 1997): 14 – 33.

Garel, Alain. “Robert Frank entretien: Image en mouvement.” La Revue du Cinéma [Paris] 435 (February 1988): 49 – 52.

Gehrig, Christian. “Frozen Moments.” Schweizer Illustrierte, April 17, 1989, 57 – 62.

Guerrin, Michel. “Robert Frank raconte sa passion pour Tuggener et ‘le miracle Suisse.’” Le Monde, February 18, 2000, 26.

Hachigian, Nina, and Tod Papageorge. “Interview with Robert Frank.” In Black + White: The Yale Undergraduate Photography Review (1989): 2 – 7.

Kernan, Sean. “Uneasy Words While Waiting: Robert Frank.” In U.S. Camera / Camera 35 Annual: America, Photographic Statements, edited by Jim Hughes, 139 – 145. New York: American Express Publishing Corp., 1972.

Lequeret, Elisabeth. “Robert Frank.” Cahiers du Cinéma, no. 621 (March 2007): 46 – 47.

Revault d’Allones, Fabrice. “Un américain à Paris.” Photomagazine 88 (December 1987 / January 1988): 26 – 28.

“Robert Frank.” In Photography within the Humanities, edited by Eugenia Parry Janis and Wendy MacNeil, 52 – 65. Danbury, NH: Addison House, 1977.

“Robert Frank.” Camera Austria 22 (1987): 17 – 23.

“Robert Frank.” Switch [Tokyo] 10, no. 4 (September 1992): 12 – 91.

Schaub, Martin. “FotoFilmFotoFilm. Eine Spirale: Robert Franks Suche nach den Augenblicken der wahren Empfindung.” Cinema. Unabhängige Schweizer Filmzeitschrift [Zurich] 30 (1984): 75 – 94.

Schmid, Joachim. “Ein Interview mit Robert Frank.” Fotokritik [Berlin], no. 14 (June 1985): 16 – 21.

Swanberg, Lasse. “Robert Frank.” In Fotografisk Årsbok 1968, 56 – 61. Stockholm: Nordisk Rotogravyrs Förlag; P.A. Norstedt & Söner, 1967.

“Walker Evans on Robert Frank/Robert Frank on Walker Evans (Interview with Frank, May 1971).” In Still / 3, edited by James Eisenman, 2 – 6. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973.

Wallis, Brian. “Robert Frank: American Visions.” Art in America 84, no. 3 (March 1996): 74 – 79.

Wheeler, Dennis. “Robert Frank Interviewed.” Criteria 3, no. 2 (June 1977): 1, 4 – 7, 24.

Academic Theses

Alexander, Stuart. “The Criticism of Robert Frank’s The Americans.” MA thesis, University of Arizona, 1986.

Dean, Stephanie Georgina. “Robert Frank’s Absurd Americans: Existentialism Present in the Photographs and Photographic Sequence of The Americans.” MA thesis, Columbia College, 2005.

Ellsworth, Kirstin Lynne. “Icons on the American Landscape in the 1960s: Mapping the Culture of Car and Road.” PhD dissertation, Indiana University, 2005.

Laufer, Marilyn. “In Search of America: Photography from the Road 1936 – 1976.” PhD dissertation, Washington University, 1992.

Lent, Tina Olsin. “Situating The Americans: Robert Frank and the Transformation of American Photography.” PhD dissertation, University of Rochester, 1994.

Meiners, Cristy Michelle. “Cultural Myths of the American Automobile in Robert Frank’s The Americans and 1950s Commercial Images.” MA thesis, Brigham Young University, 2005.

Moyers, Scott Patrick. “Going Nowhere Fast: The Car, the Highway, and American Identity in Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita and Robert Frank’s The Americans.” MA thesis, College of William and Mary, 1997.

Sass, Ann. “Robert Frank’s Photog-raphy 1942 – 1959.” PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 1991.

Related Material

Bauer und Arbeiter. 70 Photos von Paul Senn. Introduction by Arnold Kübler. Zurich: Büchergilde Gutenberg, 1943.

Belgrad, Daniel. The Culture of Spontaneity: Improvisation and the Arts in Postwar America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Blaine, Allan. “The Making (and Unmaking) of Pull My Daisy.Film History 2, no. 3 (September – October 1988): 185 – 205.

Cartier-Bresson, Henri. The Decisive Moment: Photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1952.

Cartier-Bresson, Henri. Moscou. Vu par Henri Cartier-Bresson. Paris: Collection Neuf; Robert Delpire, 1955.

Frey, Theo. Ein Buch vom Bauen. Zurich: Fretz & Wasmuth Verlag, 1943.

Gasser, Martin, ed. “Special Issue: Photography in Switzerland.” History of Photography 22, no. 3 (Autumn 1998).

Klein, William. Life Is Good & Good For You in New York: Trance Witness Revels. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, Album Petite Planète 1, 1956.

Kozloff, Max, et al. The Social Scene: The Ralph M. Parsons Foundation Photography Collection at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. Exh. cat. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art, 2000.

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