I love the area around Tufts and I don’t just mean the immediate surroundings. Davis Square is nice and all, but there are some other amazing areas that deserve exploration. For one of my courses titled “Health Equity and the Built Environment,” I had to explore the area of Union Square, a lesser known, but beyond awesome part of Somerville. If/when you come to Tufts, be sure to check out Union Square - the restaurants are to die for!
In case you’re interested in seeing a real college essay that I have actually turned in for class, here’s the essay that I wrote about the challenges facing Union Square that city planners and developers will need to overcome in the next few years in order to remain a thriving and diverse area.
Executive Summary of Union Square in Somerville, MA
Health Equity and the Built Environment
Union Square is a diverse neighborhood in Somerville, Massachusetts. Settled in the western part of Somerville, Union Square operates six bus lines through its center and is trafficked by over 10,000 vehicles per day. Union Square has a population of 15,537 in a half-mile radius and an average income of $29,996 per capita. The expansion of the Green Line MBTA stop is scheduled to be completed in Union Square by 2020 and will bring seven new stops to the area to increase daily ridership by more than 45,000 people. Union Square is promoting its image of a thriving up-and-coming community through the installation of new yoga studios, high-end coffee shops and local farmer’s markets. The changing face of Union Square increases the popularity of the area and with it, economic growth. However, the increasing accessibility and modernity of Union Square brings unique challenges that threaten the affordability of housing and have the potential to gentrify the neighborhood.
The city of Somerville is defined by its immigrant residents who account for more than 27 percent of the population. This diversity brings a unique blend of culture and a strong sense of community to the area. Many businesses in the area are run by and cater to the various ethnic groups that live in and around Union Square. Union Square faces the problem of gentrification as more affluent families and individuals move into the area and shift the development the community. The issue of gentrification is important to examine because it can have negative effects on businesses, health outcomes and emotional security as ethnic groups are pushed from the area. Author Alex Resiman says, “Change in Union Square is inevitable. As we work together in building our neighborhood, it’s helpful to consider how each of us is affected, and how we might be able to embrace opportunities for positive impacts while limiting negative consequences.”
As a community, we must address how we can best create opportunities for residents to improve their economic, social and political situation in Union Square through increased affordable housing initiatives. Affordable housing options provide resources for low-income individuals and families who are having difficulty meeting their basic needs. The implications for a new affordable housing unit would provide equity in the built environment, as adequate housing is a predictor of lower mortality rates. Promoting a sustainable, strategic and safe built environment can improve the quality of life and maintain the current number of residents in Union Square while also benefiting from the economic growth of new businesses and residents.
Access to decent housing for all U.S. households, regardless of income, has proven difficult to achieve. Despite the growth of home ownership, housing conditions for 20 million of the lowest-income U.S. residents have scarcely improved in the last thirty years. Not only does inadequate affordable housing affect low-income populations, but it also affects the new members who move into the area because it can increase evictions and homelessness which burden the entire community. A strong sense of community promotes social cohesion, which can also improve the quality of life for its residents and encourage healthy behaviors. Furthermore, strategic design of the built environment can positively impact the mental health of individuals. Land use planning and the creation of affordable housing units are critical to the health of a city and will bring positive structural and individual benefits to Union Square. We need to provide a reason for immigrants, low-income residents and business owners to stay in the area and ensure they are given proper incentives, like increased customers, revenues and social cohesion.
Preserving affordability can help long-term residents in Union Square remain in their homes and diminish the fear of displacement while simultaneously allowing affluent citizens to move into the area and increase prosperity. This allows the built environment to thrive while maintaining a sense of culture, community cohesion and social capital. This can happen by ensuring dialogue among planners, decision-makers, developers, residents and business owners. The area of Union Square should continue to grow, without forcibly removing long-time residents from the area due to a lack of affordability.
A frequently cited illustration (shown below) showing the difference between equality and equity is that of three individuals of different heights who are attempting to peer over a fence. In order to treat them equally, they would all be given the same size box to stand on to improve their lines of sight. However, doing so wouldn't necessarily help the shortest person see as well as the tallest person. In order to give equitable treatment, each person would need to be given a box to stand on that would enable a clear view over the fence.
Credit:Interaction Institute for Social Change
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), equity is "the absence of avoidable or remediable differences among groups of people, whether those groups are defined socially, economically, demographically or geographically." Therefore, as the WHO notes, health inequities involve more than lack of equal access to needed resources to maintain or improve health outcomes. They also refer to difficulty when it comes to "inequalities that infringe on fairness and human rights norms."
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) refers to health inequities and health disparities interchangeably as "types of unfair health differences closely linked with social, economic or environmental disadvantages that adversely affect groups of people." As such, equity is a process and equality is an outcome of that process. Or, as the Race Matters Institute describes, "The route to achieving equity will not be accomplished through treating everyone equally. It will be achieved by treating everyone equitably, or justly according to their circumstances."
Understanding the difference between health equality and health equity is important to public health to ensure that resources are directed appropriately — as well as supporting the ongoing process of meeting people where they are. Inherent to this process is the promotion of diversity in teams and personnel, public health practice, research methods and other related factors. For these reasons, providing the same type and number of resources to all is not enough. In order to reduce the health disparities gap, the underlying issues and individual needs of underserved and vulnerable populations must be effectively addressed.
Equity in Action
There are many successful initiatives in communities around the United States where specific steps have been taken to make approaches to health more equitable. Attempts to achieve equity have involved identifying the individualized needs of specific populations and implementing steps to help meet those needs. Some were created through the CDC's Healthy Communities Program, such as Project Brotherhood — a clinic for black men at Woodlawn Health Center in Chicago. The clinic was formed by a black physician and a nurse-epidemiologist who were interested in better addressing the health needs of black men. Partnering with a black social science researcher, they conducted focus groups with black men to learn about their experiences with the health care system, and met with other black staff at the clinic. As a result of this research, Project Brotherhood employed a number of specific strategies, including:
- Offering free health care, with optional appointments and evening clinic hours to make health care more accessible to black men.
- Providing health seminars and courses specifically for black men.
- Employing a barber who received health education training to perform free haircuts and to be a health advocate for black men that the clinic staff could not reach.
- Providing fatherhood classes to help black men become more effectively involved in the lives of their children.
- Building "a culturally competent workforce able to create a safe, respectful, male-friendly environment and to overcome mistrust in black communities toward the traditional health care system."
- Organizing physician participation in support group discussions to enhance understanding between providers and patients.
According to the organization, positive outcomes were achieved: "In January 1999, Project Brotherhood averaged 4 medical visits and 8 group participants per week. By September 2005, the average grew to 27 medical visits and 35 group participants per week … ." By 2007, Project Brotherhood had provided service to over 13,000 people since the initiative started and created a health services environment designed specifically for black men where they would be respected, heard and empowered, thus helping to reduce the health disparities experienced by this population.
Another organization that has made strides toward increased equity is Poder es Salud (Power for Health), a partnership involving nonprofits, government organizations, local health care providers, and several community and faith-based groups. This partnership was formed to address social determinants of health and reduce health disparities in black and Latino communities in Multnomah County, Oregon, by employing an approach to "increase social capital through durable social networks for the purpose of facilitating the achievement of community goals and health outcomes." This was achieved through three specific strategies:
- Community-based participatory research to support cross-cultural partnerships.
- Popular education, which involves mutual learning and analysis.
- Providing community health workers (CHWs) with specialized training "in leadership, local politics, governance structure, advocacy, community organizing, popular education, and health."
Program effectiveness was reflected in follow-up surveys that showed "significant improvements in social support, self-rated health and mental health among community members that participated in the interventions with Community Health Workers who use popular education."
An additional example of a successful health equity initiative is Project BRAVE: Building and Revitalizing an Anti-Violence Environment. Project BRAVE is a school-based intervention that builds on existing relationships among schools, community members, community-based organizations and local researchers. In doing so, Project BRAVE supports pre-existing opportunities for students to share their experiences with violence and to take part in community change to reduce it. The program's effectiveness was evidenced by an increase in school attendance, which is an important social determinant of community health.
Understanding the difference between equity and equality is a key component in the effort to reduce health disparities among vulnerable populations. The good news is that public health officials can take specific steps to help address this confusion in their own communities — including using educational resources such as the CDC's Defining and Measuring Disparities, Inequities, and Inequalities in the Healthy People Initiative and group exercises such as those suggested by JustHealthAction.org in which teams can work together to differentiate between equity and equality.
We’d like to hear from you! How have you heard these terms used or misused? What issues related to equity have you witnessed in your own community? What is being done to address them and what could be improved? Tell us in the comments or via our Twitter and Facebook channels.