What types of information should you include in your introduction?
In the introduction of your thesis, you’ll be trying to do three main things, which are called Moves:
- Move 1 establish your territory (say what the topic is about)
- Move 2 establish a niche (show why there needs to be further research on your topic)
- Move 3 introduce the current research (make hypotheses; state the research questions)
Each Move has a number of stages. Depending on what you need to say in your introduction, you might use one or more stages. Table 1 provides you with a list of the most commonly occurring stages of introductions in Honours theses (colour-coded to show the Moves). You will also find examples of Introductions, divided into stages with sample sentence extracts. Once you’ve looked at Examples 1 and 2, try the exercise that follows.
Most thesis introductions include SOME (but not all) of the stages listed below. There are variations between different Schools and between different theses, depending on the purpose of the thesis.
Stages in a thesis introduction
- state the general topic and give some background
- provide a review of the literature related to the topic
- define the terms and scope of the topic
- outline the current situation
- evaluate the current situation (advantages/ disadvantages) and identify the gap
- identify the importance of the proposed research
- state the research problem/ questions
- state the research aims and/or research objectives
- state the hypotheses
- outline the order of information in the thesis
- outline the methodology
Now read the following two examples from past theses, noting which stages are included in each example. How does example 1 differ from example 2?
Read the following sample sentence extracts from Honours theses Introductions. When you have decided what stage of the Introduction they belong to, refer to the stages in a thesis introduction and give each sentence extract a number. Then check the suggested answer to see if your answer agrees with ours.
Example 3: The IMO Severe-Weather Criterion Applied to High-Speed Monohulls (School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering)
Example 4: The Steiner Tree Problem (School of Computer Science and Engineering)
What does this tell you about thesis introductions?
Well, firstly, there are many choices that you can make. You will notice that there are variations not only between the different Schools in your faculty, but also between individual theses, depending on the type of information that is being communicated. However, there are a few elements that a good Introduction should include, at the very minimum:
- Either Statement of general topic Or Background information about the topic;
- Either Identification of disadvantages of current situation Or Identification of the gap in current research;
- Identification of importance of proposed research
- Either Statement of aims Or Statement of objectives
- An Outline of the order of information in the thesis
Note: this introduction includes the literature review.
Example 5.1 (extract 1): The effects of Fluoride on the reproduction of three native Australian plant Species (School of Geography)
|Stage 1||Sample sentence extracts (the complete Introduction is 17 pages long)|
|Give some background (p.1 of 17)|
1.1 Fluoride in the environment
Molecular fluorine (F2) is the most electronegative of the elements and therefore is highly reactive. Due to its high reactivity it is never found in its elemental form in nature. It combines directly at both ordinary or elevated temperatures with all other elements except oxygen, nitrogen, and the lighter noble gases (Cotton & Wilkinson, 1980).
Example 5.2 (extract 2): The effects of Fluoride on the reproduction of three native Australian plant Species (School of Geography)
|Stage 2||Sample sentence extracts|
|Provide a review of the literature related to the topic (p.2 of 17)||The main source of elevated fluoride in plants comes from atmospheric industrial pollution. Because of its extensive industrial use, hydrogen fluoride is probably the greatest single atmospheric fluoride contaminant and is generally considered to be the most important plant pathogenic fluoride (WHO, 1984; Treshow, 1965)… However, fluorides can cause damage to sensitive plant species even at extremely low fluoride concentrations(Hill,1969), accumulate in large amounts within the plant and cause disease if ingested by herbivores(Weinstein, 1977).|
|Stages 4 and 5||Sample sentence extracts|
|Outline the current situation; Evaluate the current situation and indicate a gap (p.12 of 17)||Doley (1981) summarized several unpublished studies that compared the sensitivity rankings of 24 species according to the responses of photosynthesis and the development of visible injury symptoms. This analysis showed that for nine species, photosynthesis measurements indicated greater sensitivity than was obvious from visible assessment, and for seven species the converse applied. This indicated that, while it may generally be true that physiological responses occur at lower doses than visible injury, this does not always appear to be the case.|
Example 5.4 (extract 4): The effects of Fluoride on the reproduction of three native Australian plant Species (School of Geography)
|Stage 7||Sample sentence extracts|
|State the research problem(p.4 of 17)||In many Australian plant species, young expanding leaves appear much more severely injured by gaseous fluorides than are old leaves. This suggests, either that the young leaf tissues are more sensitive to fluoride than mature tissues, or that sufficient fluoride enters the tissues directly through the cuticle to disrupt normal leaf development before the stomata have fully developed and opened(Doley, 1986a). This question has not been resolved due to the inability to accurately localize low concentrations of fluoride(Doley, 1986a)|
Example 5.5 (extract 5): The effects of Fluoride on the reproduction of three native Australian plant Species (School of Geography)
|Stage 8||Sample sentence extracts|
|State the research aims and /or research objectives (extract p.16 of 17)||Knowledge of the effects of fluoride on the reproductive processes of species within a forest community will help predict potential changes within the community following an increase in atmospheric fluoride due to additional industrial sources, such as aluminium smelters. For these reasons, this project was designed to investigate the reproductive processes of selected species in a woodland near the aluminium smelter at Tomago.|
Example 5.6 (extract 6): The effects of Fluoride on the reproduction of three native Australian plant Species (School of Geography)
|Stage 11||Sample sentence extracts|
|State the outline of the Methodology (extract p.17 of 17).||Germination trials were performed on seeds collected from each species along the fluoride gradient to determine if fluoride has an effect on their viability and hence the regeneration fitness of each species. A density study was used to determine if there were any differences between numbers of mature and immature trees, number of trees producing seed follicles and the number of trees flowering in this season along a fluoride gradient. By using soils collected at various distances away from the smelter the study also investigated differences in germination from the natural soil seed reserve along a fluoride gradient.|
How to write aviation papers?
You have certainly seen a plane, at least in the sky, and may have even been using airline services. However, have you ever thought how much effort and human resources it took for you or someone else to actually be on the plane and get to the destination fast and safe? Engineers who have studied hard and practiced a lot to design and build the aircraft, people who worked on the production of materials and details for the plane, pilots who trained for years to operate huge machines for hours without decent breaks or enough sleep, airport stuff who secured the flight, cleaned the airport, filled the tanks, and did numerous other things to make the flight possible, and finally, entrepreneurs who have created the workplace and brought all these wonderful people together.
Believe it or not, every single person mentioned above has prepared a certain kind of aviation paper at some point in life. And, if you are ever involved in the sphere, already are or want to be a part of the industry, you will face the writing task too. Your success on the way to your academic and career goals will depend less on the writing abilities and more on the knowledge of the main rules and writing tricks. While, in most of the cases, you will be able to use the expert assistance, it is pivotal to know how to prepare aviation papers qualitatively, and this guide will make you a real guru.
School papers on aviation
The first place where you will most likely be given aviation tasks is at school. While you will not have any in-depth research tasks that involve usage of technical data or calculations, you may be given assignments that will require you to acknowledge the aviation industry, which may spark up your interest to learn more or even pursue a career in the field. You may have the option to write an essay on aviation or may want to choose the related topic. Anyway, there are the three main things you need to realize before making the decision or starting to write:
- The topic should be very specific. Usually, school essays are about a page or two long, which means you will not have too much space for serious discussion. Therefore, you cannot aim to cover too much, but you still need something you can cover in a full way and not exceed the word limit. You can look for the topic on the aviation-related websites, or think of the certain area you would love to examine, and narrow your choice down to the small and manageable topic.
- Do not choose anything too technical. While you can surely choose a particular plane model to discuss, if you do not touch upon in-depth math and engineering-related details, it is not recommended to pick the topic that has to do with something neither you nor your teacher can fully grasp. You cannot be an expert in this age, and you definitely do not have enough expertise, while your teacher will rather be shocked, surprised, confused, or bored while checking your paper. The same rules apply to aviation book reviews, which are another type of assignment you can be asked to work on at school. As with the current knowledge in the field you cannot possibly comprehend how to build a plane or design a turbine, you should not choose the book that is too advanced and hardly possible to analyze adequately.
- No clichés allowed. If you want to write about something or someone well-known, do not choose the most obvious options or the ones you know students usually go with while writing an essay or aviation biography. It is unlikely you will say something new or interesting enough to get a good mark, even with so many information and juicy details available in the sources. For example, Amelia Earhart is, no doubt, an outstanding personality, but there are way too many school papers written about her, and your teacher has surely seen at least fifty of them over the years. Spend some time on finding an option that would both satisfy your desire to prepare a creative work on the subject, and will not make the teacher want to take a nap while reading.
Remember these rules next time you decide to write an aviation essay to craft the work that will really impress your teacher. If you are struggling to find a perfect topic in the field, you can always get a little help and a few pieces of advice from the knowledgeable people. Writers at Pro-Papers are at your service anytime you need quality assistance and some handy tips to get your work started.
Aviation research paper guidelines
The papers you are going to write in college or university will make school assignments seem like a piece of cake. Aviation research (also known as thesis or dissertation) papers will most likely be the task you will be assigned pretty often during the course of studies. It requires to pick the topic, which is usually the question, an issue, or a gap in the chosen area of the field, research it in a certain way, and provide the thought-out answer or the solution, along with further recommendations for the readers and specialists in the sphere. The teacher may narrow down the research field for you in the requirements unless you are asked to write a term paper. This type of work is similar to the dissertation but is given for the whole term, which means that it comprises most of the material you have learned, and that implies that the topic choice is unlimited unless the instructor said otherwise. If you are puzzled by the assignment and are having hard times getting started, here are the basic guidelines that will get the process going:
- Decide on the subject and research it. No matter what tips are given, it is impossible to come up with the topic first, and then do all the research. People that are already used to writing aviation term papers and professionals who deal with dissertations for a long time know that the topic does not magically appear in mind, no matter how hard you brainstorm. Research is what helps to narrow the variety of options you have to one. You may surely determine what kind of area you like the most; for example, if you are studying biology, you may want to focus on genetic modifications or a few other subjects. In order to make the topic more specific, you will have to read a lot of literature on the subject, and see if there are any unanswered questions/issues, or gaps in the works of researchers that are necessary to study. When you come up with the more focused topic, it is crucial to show it to the teacher, make sure he/she approves it, and continue more in-depth research afterward. It is necessary to find the aviation articles, journals, and books that contain the information you need and present it in a logical and non-biased way. There is nothing bad in using web sources, but you need to understand that just about anyone can put the data on the websites nowadays, which means you need to be selective when it comes to the "facts" that such sources provide. Even though it is hard, it is better to look for the materials in the "old-school" way by going to the library or at least accessing the credible online version of it.
- Outline and draft. Even if you feel very enthusiastic and full of desire to sit and start writing, put it on hold if you do not have an outline. It is paramount to know the structure of the aviation thesis before you start, otherwise, writing the paper will be like the journey in the dark. Without an outline, you can fail to address the most important points, and thus, will have to rewrite everything from scratch after hours of hard work. Some teachers provide their students with the sample structure they want every submitted paper to have, and if you were given such specific instructions, you can consider yourself lucky. However, if you were not told how to organize the paper, you can find a template on your own or look at the works of others. There are a few key sections you need to have in the aviation dissertation: index, classical introduction and conclusion, literature review, methodology, and discussion. Other parts like abstract, keywords, or appendices are optional and are mostly necessary when the paper is lengthy or technical. When you have a structure, it is vital to determine the detail you will cover in each section, and make a few notes for your future self. If everything is clear, you may surely start writing. However, you need to understand that you will not create a masterpiece from the first try, and the work will require a lot of editing and rewriting in some places. This is the usual way the research goes, and you should know it not to be afraid to make the massive but significant changes.
- Reread, edit, and check whether all requirements are met. As it has been previously mentioned, you will have to deal with editing and rewriting a lot, especially if paper is huge. You should check structure, readability, correctness of each section, and adherence to the instructions. If you have been provided with the outline or the teacher has approved the one you came up with, you may skip the first part, or just make a superficial examination. You can check the readability yourself, but if it is a research-paper-like coursework, term paper, or the dissertation that your final grade seriously depends on, you should ask a friend or a professional editor to read the paper and make sure it is clear, understandable, and has no mistakes. Even if no error is spotted, you should still carefully review the final work before the submission. When it comes to the structure of the paper, it should adhere to the academic standards. While it is evident that sections should be concise, logical, and convey all your thoughts clearly, it is also important that they focus on particular details. For example, the introduction should be built around the background information, include the purpose of writing and the thesis statement, state how you have found the topic, why it is significant, and what difference your study will make. You should look for more specific instructions for each section, and it is better to search for the answers applicable to your area of studies or even subject, if possible. Finally, it is essential to look at the professor's instructions and see whether the formatting, the writing style, and other must-follows are correct in the paper.
There are a few more similar tasks you may be asked to work on in the academic facility. An aviation report is not likely to be the most popular of them, but it will definitely be one of the most significant ones, if not for the grades, then for the future job. While numerous people agree on the point that universities rarely prepare students to the realities of their future jobs, they also agree that the report is one of the rare type of papers that actually had the value and were useful. Reports share a lot of similarities with research papers, but they are way more technical, and their topics are hardly that academic. And while the purpose of writing is different too, the research process and the structure are alike, and as report writing assignments at schools are often simplified, thus looking more like research tasks, the tips presented above are often applicable to reports.
Many students make the mistake of assuming that aviation case study has a lot to do with thesis papers when it is actually a whole different kind of project. The thorough research is required there too, but the key element of the work is not the same. The main focus of the case study is an existing case or the event/situation made up by a teacher, and making the conclusions students rely not just on the facts and information from the experts, but also on personal experience and professional view, which makes it quite the opposite of what a dissertation is.
Nevertheless, all the works that have been mentioned have a few things in common, which are an in-depth research and analysis. Hence, whether you need a research paper or college coursework help, you can get it all from one specialist like Pro-Papers. Our experts have a lot of writing experience and thus, a lot of writing options to offer you. Therefore, if you struggle with the paper completion on some point, you now know where to find the answers and assistance needed to keep going.
Preparation of aviation application documents
Whether you have studied to become an aircraft engineer or a pilot, you need a high-quality aviation resume to get a job you have always wanted. Any aviation-related technical profession requires a master in the field, the one who can handle critical situations and work responsibly, understanding how many lives depend on his every action. And this is exactly the kind of person any employer in the sphere is looking for. Of course, there are numerous other important aspects that hiring managers consider while making a choice, and there is a huge variety of skills and experiences they are looking for while recruiting. It may seem like they are searching for the perfection, but that surely does not mean you need to lie or give up applying. Even if you like the company and the position, but it seems way too good, and the requests way too demanding, it is still worth the shot. It is less about your professional background and more about the light in which you present it. Apart from the content, there are certain writing standards the employer is expecting you to adhere to, so your resume should not only convey how good of an employee you are, but also do it in an appropriate manner. Here are a few things you should note down and remember if you are on a job hunt:
- Do not let your aviation CV or resume exceed one page. Even though CVs are usually a bit longer, not all basic rules apply to the applications in the aviation field. Cut all information that is clearly not relevant or can be communicated in another way, for example, during the interview.
- Include education, certifications, and trainings. Show that you are a knowledgeable person that continues the learning process and keeps oneself in a professional shape. Make yourself look qualified enough to work the job the employer is advertising.
- Describe relevant experiences. Remember to put the most significant ones first, as the managers may only read the first few sentences of each section on your CV. For example, if you are writing a military aviation resume, start with military-related experiences, even if they are not the first ones you have on the list.
- Mind the position requirements. Depending on the position you are applying for, you may be required to include specific sections like the flight time if you are a pilot or the types of aircraft you have been working on if you are an engineer. This rule is also applicable to the skills. Most of the job advertisements clearly state what kind of experts they are looking for. You should not copy skills and paste them into your resume, but make sure you have something that matches company's expectations.
- Do not forget to prepare the aviation cover letter. Although nobody anticipated a cover letter to still be an obligatory thing to send these days, it accompanies the resume almost everywhere. While it surely gives you more writing problems, it is your chance to show something you did not include in the CV, and make a great impression, so take enough time to work on it.
While there are a lot more things you need to consider while writing, like the structure or the list of skills to add, they are unique for every position, which means you will have to tailor everything accordingly and look for the proper template for the outline during the preparation process. If for some reason you cannot to find the necessary information or work on the resume or CV on your own, know that Pro-Papers' aviation resume services are available anytime. Our specialists will gladly help you with outlining and writing, and make sure you show your application is the best.
Aviation business plan writing tips
If you are not looking for the job but are rather willing to create your own company, you need a solid foundation to kick-start the business with making a detailed business plan. Aviation business plans are not the easiest thing to write, so note from the very beginning that you might require professional help at some point of the work. It is vital to use precise data and calculations for a business plan in such sphere, and it will be especially important for the investors, as a few mistakes can mean the loss of millions of dollars to them. If you want to open your own airlines or start manufacturing the planes, it is crucial to understand that you require serious funding. It will be really hard to find the investors, and it will be even harder to convince them that your idea and your plan will work and bring revenue. Therefore, you should not only take the time to think everything through, but also craft the plan that can persuade people to put their money into your future company. Here are the tips that might come handy in the process:
- Read samples. There is no single rule of structuring and writing business plans. Everything depends on the original idea and your goals, and the whole paper will be tailored to these two things. Thus, you need to read a few samples with similar ideas that worked, and see what sections they consisted of, and what information they conveyed. You can outline your plan as you wish, but make sure to include the most important parts (like executive summary or finances) the investors will surely be looking for.
- Make a thorough market research. Acknowledge your competitors, as you will have many in the sphere, and look at the overall market conditions. You need to understand whether it is the right time to enter the market, and what piece of it you can aim for. Determine why the potential customers would choose you over your competitors (lower prices, better services, etc.)
- Think about the personnel. While the management team that will implement the plan is important indeed, and you should think whether you have the right people in it, it is also important to understand that if you are willing to create an airline, you will need a lot of people to work for you, and many of them will need regular training. Plan when, where, how, and who will conduct the training sessions, and what kind of resources are needed for them.
- Calculate finances and obtain governmental approvals. If you have any experience in the sphere, you know that you need to deal with permissions and a lot of documentation that will allow your company to function properly, have the license for the international flights, be acknowledged by other companies and the government, etc. If you have no idea what kind of papers you should take care of, you may not even start writing a business plan. Research the question, and make sure you have a professional on the team who can deal with the legal side of the business. Another big thing in the plan is the financial aspect. You will have to manage millions, and it is important that you do it wisely. As it has already been said, there is no place for mistakes in the venture of such kind, so you need to consider all possible expenses, minimal and maximal revenues, and other significant details.
- Create the aviation presentation. While potential funders may be too bored to read the whole plan you have prepared, they will definitely sit through an impressive presentation that covers the main points and the questions everyone wants to know the answers to. Be sure to include the basic information like the company's name, location, management team, competitive advantage, market review, and a few other things that are worth mentioning. Address possible issues and the financial side of the deal, like when investors should expect to get their money back, how much they will get, and whether they have any options for participating or not participating in the life of the company. Do not forget to mention the pitfalls, and the way you will deal with them, as well as the milestones with the approximate dates your company will reach them.
If you do not want to hire anyone to work on your aviation business plan with you, make sure your team has people who can deal with legalities and financial predictions, as well as calculations. However, it is strongly recommended to at least have an expert in the field take a look at your plan after you finish, point out the issues and omissions, and make the changes needed to help you win the trust of investors.
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