Materials science (Callister & Rethwich 2007) consists of applying the principles of physics, chemistry, and mathematics for understanding concepts of materials such as structures, properties, behavior etc. Material scientists and engineers work to innovate new materials to meet the ever-changing engineering requirements of the world. Material science is one of the oldest branches of engineering and sciences which actually has genesis from the time people started thinking in the scientific framework about metallurgy, material and mineralogical observations (Carter & Norton, 2007).
At present, material scientists play a vital role in contributing to the developments in such research areas as nano-technology, biomaterials, forensics etc. Key developments in the materials used in biological engineering, mechanical engineering, aeronautical engineering, electronic and electrical engineering etc. are due to the successful research done in materials science in recent years.
Material science graduates can find careers in a number of domains ranging from manufacturing, processing, recycling, designing etc. Solar energy, biomedical implantations (Ratner & Hoffman,2004), ophthalmic devices, tissue engineering, the drug industry, information and communication systems, and optical and opto-electronic engineering are some of the latest avenues offering good scope for professional development for material scientists and engineers.
In most of the United States’ universities, graduate level material science courses consist of the study of atomic structure, bonding of solids, imperfections in crystal structures, mechanical properties of metals, diffusion, dislocations, strengthening mechanisms, phase diagrams, material processing, ceramics, composites, corrosion etc. Such courses also include the study of material properties such as electrical, magnetic, creep, thermal resistance etc. Some universities include the study of economic considerations as well as environmental and social implications of the material applications in engineering as optional study courses in the material science graduation syllabus.
Developments in material science and engineering include innovation of materials of atomic thickness, high strength composite materials, low cost polymers (Shackelford & Alexander, 2000), and carbon nano tubes (Ruoff & Lorents 1995) etc.
Material science offers a great many opportunities, and anyone with enthusiasm, commitment, and knowledge can forge a successful career in the discipline.
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Callister, W. D., & Rethwisch, D. G., 2007, Materials science and engineering: an introduction (Vol. 7, pp. 665-715). New York: Wiley.
Carter, C. B., & Norton, M. G 2007, Ceramic materials: science and engineering. Springer Science & Business Media.
Ratner, B. D., Hoffman, A. S., Schoen, F. J., & Lemons, J. E. 2004, Biomaterials science: an introduction to materials in medicine. Academic press.
Ruoff, R. S., & Lorents, D. C 1995, Mechanical and thermal properties of carbon nanotubes. Carbon, 33(7), 925-930.
Shackelford, J. F., & Alexander, W. (Eds.) 2000, CRC materials science and engineering handbook. CRC press.
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Diffusion creep refers to the deformation of crystalline solids by the diffusion of vacancies through their crystal lattice. Diffusion creep results in plastic deformation rather than brittle failure of the material.
Diffusion creep is more sensitive to temperature than other deformation mechanisms. It usually takes place at high homologous temperatures (i.e. within about a tenth of its absolute melting temperature). Diffusion creep is caused by the migration of crystalline defects through the lattice of a crystal such that when a crystal is subjected to a greater degree of compression in one direction relative to another, defects migrate to the crystal faces along the direction of compression, causing a net mass transfer that shortens the crystal in the direction of maximum compression. The migration of defects is in part due to vacancies, whose migration is equal to a net mass transport in the opposite direction.
Crystalline materials are never perfect on a microscale. Some sites of atoms in the crystal lattice can be occupied by point defects, such as "alien" particles or vacancies. Vacancies can actually be thought of as chemical species themselves (or part of a compound species/component) that may then be treated using heterogeneous phase equilibria. The number of vacancies may also be influenced by the number of chemical impurities in the crystal lattice, if such impurities require the formation of vacancies to exist in the lattice.
A vacancy can move through the crystal structure when the neighbouring particle "jumps" in the vacancy, so that the vacancy moves in effect one site in the crystal lattice. Chemical bonds need to be broken and new bonds have to be formed during the process, therefore a certain activation energy is needed. Moving a vacancy through a crystal becomes therefore easier when the temperature is higher.
The most stable state will be when all vacancies are evenly spread through the crystal. This principle follows from Fick's law:
In which Jx stands for the flux ("flow") of vacancies in direction x; Dx is a constant for the material in that direction and is the difference in concentration of vacancies in that direction. The law is valid for all principal directions in (x, y, z)-space, so the x in the formula can be exchanged for y or z. The result will be that they will become evenly distributed over the crystal, which will result in the highest mixing entropy.
When a mechanical stress is applied to the crystal, new vacancies will be created at the sides perpendicular to the direction of the lowest principal stress. The vacancies will start moving in the direction of crystal planes perpendicular to the maximal stress. Current theory holds that the elasticstrain in the neighborhood of a defect is smaller toward the axis of greatest differential compression, creating a defect chemical potential gradient (depending upon lattice strain) within the crystal that leads to net accumulation of defects at the faces of maximum compression by diffusion. A flow of vacancies is the same as a flow of particles in the opposite direction. This means a crystalline material can deform under a differential stress, by the flow of vacancies.
Highly mobile chemical components substituting for other species in the lattice can also cause a net differential mass transfer (i.e. segregation) of chemical species inside the crystal itself, often promoting shortening of the rheologically more difficult substance and enhancing deformation.
Types of diffusion creep
Diffusion of vacancies through a crystal can happen in a number of ways. When vacancies move through the crystal (in the material sciences often called a "grain"), this is called Herring-Nabarro Creep. Another way in which vacancies can move is along the grain boundaries, a mechanism called Coble creep.
When a crystal deforms by diffusion creep to accommodate space problems from simultaneous grain boundary sliding (the movement of whole grains along grain boundaries) this is called granular or superplastic flow. Diffusion creep can also be simultaneous with pressure solution. Pressure solution is, like Coble creep, a mechanism in which material moves along grain boundaries. While in Coble creep the particles move by "dry" diffusion, in pressure solution they move in solution.
Each plastic deformation of a material can be described by a formula in which the strain rate () depends on the differential stress (σ or σD), the grain size (d) and an activation value in the form of an Arrhenius equation:
In which A is the constant of diffusion, Q the activation energy of the mechanism, R the gas constant and T the absolute temperature (in kelvins). The exponents n and m are values for the sensitivity of the flow to stress and grain size respectively. The values of A, Q, n and m are different for each deformation mechanism. For diffusion creep, the value of n is usually around 1. The value for m can vary between 2 (Nabarro-Herring creep) and 3 (Coble creep). That means Coble creep is more sensitive to grain size of a material: materials with larger grains can deform less easily by Coble creep than materials with small grains.
Traces of diffusion creep
It is difficult to find clear microscale evidence for diffusion creep in a crystalline material, since few structures have been identified as definite proof. A material that was deformed by diffusion creep can have flattened grains (grains with a so called shape-preferred orientation or SPO). Equidimensional grains with no lattice-preferred orientation (or LPO) can be an indication for superplastic flow. In materials that were deformed under very high temperatures, lobate grain boundaries may be taken as evidence for diffusion creep.
Diffusion creep is a mechanism by which the volume of the crystals can increase. Larger grain sizes can be a sign that diffusion creep was more effective in a crystalline material.
- ^Passchier & Trouw 1998; p. 257
- ^Twiss & Moores 2000, p. 391
- ^Twiss & Moores 2000; p. 390-391
- ^Twiss & Moores 2000, p. 394
- ^Passchier & Trouw 1998; p. 54
- ^Passchier & Trouw 1998; p. 42
- ^Gower & Simpson 1992
- Gower, R.J.W. & Simpson, C.; 1992: Phase boundary mobility in naturally deformed, high-grade quartzofeldspatic rocks: evidence for diffusion creep, Journal of Structural Geology 14, p. 301-314.
- Passchier, C.W. & Trouw, R.A.J., 1998: Microtectonics, Springer, ISBN 3-540-58713-6
- Twiss, R.J. & Moores, E.M., 2000 (6th edition): Structural Geology, W.H. Freeman & co, ISBN 0-7167-2252-6