Pam Hogansons Essay

"1997 Grand Forks Flood: When History Became Personal," 82.1: 18-34
After Custer: Loss and Transformation in Sioux Country, review of, 78:3 & 4, 35-40
Agnew, Jeremy, review of, 77:1 & 2, 40-46
Agrarian Socialism in America: Marx, Jefferson, and Jesus in the Oklahoma Countryside 1904-1920 (Bisset), review of, 67.4: 38
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, criticism of, 66.3 & 4: 31-40
Agricultural depression, following World War I, 66.3 & 4: 31-40
Agriculture, history of, 68.1: 2-19, 68.1: 20-36; use of binder twine, 68.1: 20-36; use of Native American seeds, 68.1: 2-19
Ahern, Wilbert H., review by, 68.3: 43
Albers, Everett C.–director of N. D. Humanities Council, 70.3: inside cover; article by, 66.3 & 4: 2
Albers, Gretchen A., review by, 76:3 & 4, 41-48            
Allen, Brad, article by, 81.4: 16-
Allen, John L., article by, 69.2, 3, & 4: 2-23; review by, 73.3 & 4: 36
Allen, Michael, review of, 66.3 & 4: 64
Allert, Johannes R., article by, 81.3: 3-15
Amato, Joseph A., ed., review of, 72.3 & 4: 62
Amenia and Sharon Land Company–bonanza farm, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Amenia, N. Dak., in the 1920s and 1930s, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
American Agriculture and the Problem of Monopoly: The Political Economy of Grain Belt Farming, 1953-1980 (Lauck), review of, 68.1: 37
American Anthropology, 1971-1995 (Darnell, ed.), review of, 71.3 & 4: 48-49
American Automobile Association (AAA), 74:1 & 2: 2-35
American Fur Company, and George Catlin, 70.4: 12-31
American Indian Education: A History, Review of, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
American Legion, formation of, 68.3: 2-13; post-WWII organization and purposes of, 70.1: 2-25; role in senatorial election of 1920, 68.3: 2-13
American Indian women and quilting, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia, review of, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
American Natural Gas Company, and Arthur Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and coal gasification in western N. Dak., 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
American Red Cross, and World War II, 67.4: 2-19
American Revolution, causes of, 70.1: 28-35
American Serengeti: The Last Big Animals of the Great Plains (Flores), review of, 81.3: 34-35
The American West: Out of Myth, Into Reality (Hassrick), review of, 68.2: 38
The American West: The Reader (Nugent and Ridge, eds.), review of, 67.4: 38
Americans View Their Dust Bowl Experience (Wunder, Kaye & Carstensen), review of, 66.3 & 4: 64
“An Excerpt from Passage of Discovery: The American Rivers Guide to the Missouri River of
Lewis and Clark,” 66.2: 15-22
An Opportunity Lost: The Truman Administration and the Farm Policy Debate, review of, 74:3
& 4:45-56
Andersen, Elmer L., review of, 70.1: 39
Anderson, Gary Clayton, review by, 78:3 & 4, 35-40
Anderson, Joseph L., review by, 75:3 & 4: 54
Anderson, Kathie Ryckman, review by, 67.4: 36
Andreasen, Bethany, review by, 72.3 & 4: 61; 78:3 & 4, 35-40
Andrews, Mark–U.S. senator, and Arthur Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and gubernatorial campaign against William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Animals, observed by Lewis and Clark, 66.2: 2-14
Anticipating the Unknown: Logistics and Ideology in the Exploration of Louisiana,” 70.2: 22-30
Archambault, JoAllyn, article by, 68.2: 24-26
Archambault, Joseph–student at Hampton/Lakota leader, 68.2: 2-26
Archambault, Mary Gates–Lakota woman, 68.2: 24-26
Ardoch, N.Dak., patent medicines in, 80.3: 3-28
"Are We Germans, or Russians, or Americans?: The McIntosh County German-Russians During World War I," 82.2: 3-18 (reprint)
Arikara agriculture, and the Oscar H. Will & Company, 76:1 & 2, 2-25
Arikara account of Custer’s campaign, and Orin G. Libby, 68.4: 2-25
Arikara Narrative of Custer’s Campaign and the Battle of the Little Bighorn, writing of, 68.4: 2-25, 76:3 & 4, 22-40
Arikara War: The First Plains Indian War, 1823 (Nester), review of, 70.3: 40
Arikaras, and Lewis and Clark Expedition, 70.3: 26-35, 70.4: 2-10; trade alliances of, 70.4: 2-10
Aristocrat of the West: The Story of Harold Schafer (Woiwode), review of, 67.4: 36
Arman, Elvira Susanna (Sue) Will – daughter of George Will, 76:1 & 2, 2-25
Armstrong, Samuel Chapman–founder of Hampton Institute, 68.2: 2-23, 68.3: 20-42
Army Air Forces, in Europe in WWII, 72.3 & 4: 25-37; casualties sustained by, 72.3 & 4: 25-37
Arnesen, Eric, ed., review of, 66.2: 40
Arts of Diplomacy: Lewis and Clark’s Indian Collection (McLaughlin), review of, 72.3 & 4: 61
Assault on the Deadwood Stage: Road Agents and Shotgun Messengers, review of, 80:1, 34-36
Association for Retarded Citizens of North Dakota, et. al., vs. Olson, et. al., 74:1 & 2: 2-35
At Lincoln’s Side: Smith Stimmel’s Personal Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln,” 74:3 & 4:2-5
At Standing Rock and Wounded Knee: The Journals and Papers of Father Francis M. Craft, 1888-1890, review of, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Atkins, Annette, review of, 70.3: 36; review by, 81.2: 30-31
Automobiles, early tours by, 67.1: 23-45; racing, 74:1 & 2: 36-43
Axline, Jon, review by, 67.4: 38

Bad GunMandan, sketch of, 73.3 & 4: 2-31
Bad Lands Cow Boy–newspaper, 67.2: 26-38
Badlands–North Dakota, landscape design in, 80.2: 3-15
Bailey, Dix, and Mead–photographers of Sitting Bull, 72.3 & 4: 2-21
Bailey, Michael J., review by, 67.3: 39
Baker, Gerard (Yellow Wolf), review by, 77:3 & 4, 40; 80:1, 34-36
Baker, William M., review of, 67.3: 39
Balcom, Sue B., review of, 80.2: 52
Balkowitsch, Shane—wet plate photographer, 81.2: 22
Bands, performing in N. Dak., 67.1: 10-22; military, photo of at Fort Buford, 69.2, 3, & 4: back cover
Bankruptcy, and Lynn Frazier’s legislation, 66.3 & 4: 31-40
Banks, Dennis with Richard Erdoes, review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Banks, Kimball M., review by, 70.1: 38
Barber, Charles M., review by, 72.3 & 4: 58
Barbour, Barton H., review of, 70.2: 31
Barker-Devine, Jenny, review by, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Barnard, Sandy, review by, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Barnes, J. C.–buffalo hunter, and James McLaughlin, 71.3 & 4: 2-18
Barnes, Jeff, review of, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Barney Keogh: A North Dakota P.O.W. in World War II Germany,” 67.4: 2-19
Barth, Aaron L., review by, 81.1: 34-35
Bauroth, Nicholas, article by, 80:1, 14-27
Barrett, Carole, article by, 66.3 & 4: 3-16; reviews by, 74.1 & 2: 44-55, 80.3: 32, 81.2: 29-30
Barry, David F.–photographer, 72.3 & 4: 2-21, 22-24; and Sitting Bull, 72.3 & 4: 2-21, 22-24
Barry, Missouri (near Liberty and Platte City), and James Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35
Basin Electric Power Cooperative, and coal gasification in western N. Dak., 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Bates v. Clark–U.S. Supreme Court case, and definition of Indian Country, 71.3 & 4: 2-18
Bates, Frederick–secretary of Louisiana Territory, as rival of Meriwether Lewis, 72.3 & 4: 38-57
Battle of the Little Bighorn, and Gall, 74:3 & 4:17-27; One Bull’s participation in, 66.3 & 4: 3-16, and letters of Elizabeth Custer, and commemoration of, 76:3 & 4, 22-40
Bauer, Patricia, review by, 82.2: 37-40
Baum, L. Frank, review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Baum’s Road to Oz: The Dakota Years (Koupal), review of, 69.1: 33
Beach, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Bean, Corman–business partner of William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Bear Face, Rosa–student at Hampton, 68.2: 2-23
Beaver, depletion of by fur trade, 71.3 & 4: 31-42
Beck, Paul N., review of, 79:1, 35-36
Beckham, Stephen Dow, review of, 72.3 & 4: 63
Becoming Laura Ingalls Wilder: The Woman Behind the Legend (Miller), review of, 67.4: 37
Before Custer: Surveying the Yellowstone, 1872 (Lubetkin, ed.), review of, 81.2:31-32
Before the Great Spirit: The Many Faces of Sioux Spirituality (Rice), review of, 66.2: 37
Behind the Lens,” 72.3 & 4: 22-24
Being Dakota: Tales & Traditions of the Sisseton & Wahpeton (Oneroad and Skinner), review of, 72.3 & 4: 65
Bender, Alice McDonnell-WPA theater troupe director, 81.4: 3-15
Bender, Nathan, review by, 70.2: 35
Benoit, Virgil, review by, 78:1 & 2, 37-43
Benson, Jackson J., review of, 66.1: 16-20
Berger, Albert I., article by, 66.1: 21-37
Bergland, Betty, review by, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Bergland, Betty, and Lori Lahlum, ed. review of, 77:3 & 4, 40
Bettelyoun, Susan Bordeaux, review of, 66.2: 39
Beyond Mount Rushmore: Other Black Hills Faces, review of, 77:1 & 2, 40-46
Beyond Schoolmarms and Madams: Montana Women's Stories (Kohl), review of, 81.4:36
Big Bend on the Upper Missouri, 1900 Miles Above St. Louis, painting by George Catlin, 70.4: front and back cover
Big Dams in the New Deal Era: A Confluence of Engineering and Politics, review of, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
The Big Empty: The Great Plains in the Twentieth Century, review of, 78:1 & 2, 37-43
Big White, see Sheheke
Billington, David P., and Donald C. Jackson, review of, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Birch Coulie: The Epic Battle of the Dakota War, review of,78:3 & 4, 35-40
Bird, George F. – businessman and cousin to George Will, 76:1 & 2, 2-25
Birds and Mammals Observed by Lewis & Clark in North Dakota,” 66.2: 2-14
Birds, observed by Lewis and Clark, 66.2: 2-14
“The Birth, Life, and Death of Science Hall on the Campus of the University of North Dakota,” 69.1: 2-17
Bismarck City Auditorium, 67.1: 10-22
Bismarck, D.T., review of, 76:3 & 4, 41-48
Bismarck, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Bismarck State Bank, and Arthur Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Bismarck, N. Dak., history of, 68.1: 2-19
Bison latifrons–Ice Age mammal, in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 48-55; fossils of, 73.1 & 2: 48-55
Bison, depletion of from fur trade, 69.2, 3, & 4: 2-23; effigy of, 66.2: 9
Bisset, Jim, review of, 67.4: 38
Black Cat–Mandan chief, and Lewis and Clark Expedition, 70.4: 2-10, 71.1 & 2: 65-71
Black Elk Lives: Conversations with the Black Elk Family (DeSersa, Pourier, DeSersa, Jr., and DeSersa), review of, 70.1: 41
Black Viking–statue, 67.1: 2-9
Blackburn, William M.–first president, University of N. Dak., 66.3 & 4: 17-30
Blackfeet Indians, and Lewis and Clark Expedition, 72.3 & 4: 38-57
Blackfoot, and James Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and Joseph Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35
Black-footed ferrets, protection of, 66.2: 15-22
Blackhoop, David–Hampton student, 68.3: 20-42
Blackorby, Edward C., articles by, 67.3: 2-23, 67.4: 20-35; review of, 71.1 & 2: 75-76
Blessum, Ben—artist, creator of Lincoln bust gift document, 74:3 & 4:28-44 and back cover.
Blodgett, Peter J., reviews by, 66.3 & 4: 62, 72.1 & 2: 56
Bloom, John, review of, 70.2: 34
Blue Buttes, near New Town, photograph of, 70.4: inside cover
Blue Water Creek and the First Sioux War, 1854-1856 (Paul), review of, 73.3 & 4:38
Bluemle, John P., review of, 81.4:35-36
Boarding schools, and quilting, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families (Child), review of, 66.3 & 4: 62
Bobb, Ignatz-blacksmith, 82.2: 20-34
Bodmer, Karl – artist, and Square Buttes, 75:1 & 2: 15-23; and James Kipp,77:1 & 2, 2-35
Bodmer, Paul, review by, 69.1: 35
Boe, Christian–private, First North Dakota Infantry Regiment, E Company (Williston), 71.1 & 2: 50-64
Bogue, Allan G., review of, 66.3 & 4: 61
Bohr, Roland, review of, 80:1, 34-36
Bolz, Peter, review of, 69.1: 34
Bonanza farm, Amenia and Sharon Land Company, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Boosterism, and auto tourism, 67.1: 23-45
Borealosuchus–prehistoric crocodile, in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 26-36; fossils of, 73.1 & 2: 26-36
The Borderlands of the American and Canadian Wests: Essays on Regional History of the Forty-ninth Parallel, review of, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
Boren, John C. – Farmer, Civil War Veteran, 75:1 & 2: 2-15
Boren, Mary Jane Woods Pennell -- Farm Wife, 75:1 & 2: 2-15
Boren, Roscoe C. – son of John and M.J. Boren, 75:1 & 2: 2-15
Bosau-Allen, Judith M., review by, 68.4: 41
Botkin, Daniel B., article by, 66.2: 15-22
Bottineau, John B.–attorney, and Turtle Mountain Reserve land dispute, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79
Boucher, N. F.–warden of North Dakota State Prison, 68.1: 20-36
Bound in Twine: The History and Ecology of the Henequen-Wheat Complex for Mexico and the American and Canadian Plains, 1880-1950, review of, 75:3 & 4: 54
Bowman, Carl F., review of, 70.3: 38
Bowman, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Boyd, William S., on Guadalcanal, 66.1: 2-15
Brady, Lisa M., review by, 71.3 & 4: 49
Brandt, Thompson, article by, 67.1: 10-22
Braun, Sebastian, reviews by, 75:1 & 2: 26-42, 75:3 & 4: 54, 81.3: 35-36; review of, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Braun, Sebastian Felix, Gregory Gagnon, Birgit Hans, review of, 76:3 & 4, 41-48
Brave Bull McLaughlin, Mary---quilter from Standing Rock, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
“Breaking an 1889 Glass Ceiling: Laura J. Eisenhuth,” 79:1, 13-25
Brennan, J. William, review by, 66.3&4: 65
Brenner, Ernst–Turtle Mountain Reserve subagent and Farmer-in-Charge, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79
Briggs, Pierson (Pete), and William Avery Rockefeller, 66.1: 21-37
Britton, Marcia, review by, 70.1: 40
Brizée-Bowen, Sandra L., review of, 72.3 & 4: 60
Brontops–prehistoric mammal, in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 37-47; fossils of, 73.1 & 2: 37-47
Brookwood Labor College, and Arthur Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Brotherton, David–major, letter by, 69.2, 3, & 4: 107-109
Brudvig, Jon L., reviews by, 66.3 & 4: 62, 68.4: 39
Brundsdale, Norman–governor/U.S. senator, and Arthur Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; appointment to Senate, 70.1: 2-25
Bryant, Keith, review by, 75:3 & 4: 56
Bucko, Raymond A., review by, 72.3 & 4: 58
Buffalo Bull’s Back Fat–Blackfoot Indian, portrayed by Catlin, 70.4: 12-31
“‘The Buffalo Carcass on the Company Sink’: Sanitation at a Frontier Fort,” 69.2, 3, & 4: 50-60
Buffalo hunting, and the Turtle Mountain Chippewa, 71.3 & 4: 27-30; as portrayed in art, 71.3 & 4
Buffalo, conservation of, 71.3 & 4: 2-18; demise of, 71.3 & 4: 2-18
Buffalo Inc.: American Indians and Economic Development, review of, 76.1 & 2: 46-54
Buffalos Gone East for Good–pictograph of Chippewa buffalo hunt, 71.3 & 4: 27-30
“The Builder: William L. Guy,” 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Building a House/Making a Home: A History of the North Dakota Governor’s Residence (Dalrymple), review of, 80.3: 31
Buildings of North Dakota (Martens and Ramsay), review of, 80.3: 31-32
Burdick Collection, SHSND, 67.3: 2-23       
Burdick, Eugene A.–attorney/judge, and his father Usher, 67.3: 2-23; and the Burdick Collection,
67.3: 2-23
Burdick, Jocelyn – U.S. Senator, and Gov. Sinner, 75.3 & 4, 2-53
Burdick, Quentin–attorney/U.S. senator, and campaign versus Davis, 70.1: 2-25; and his father Usher, 67.3: 2-23; and William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; election to U.S. House and Senate, 67.4: 20-35
Burdick, Usher L.–attorney/U.S. representative, early political life of, 67.3: 2-23; and his final
years in office, 67.4: 20-35
Bureau of Indian Affairs, and Turtle Mountain Ojibwas and Métis, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79
Burke, John–governor/lawyer/U.S. Treasurer, and Turtle Mountain Reserve land dispute, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79
Bush, George H.W. -- president, and Gov. Sinner, 75.3 & 4: 2-53
“‘But a Cog in the Underworld Machine’: Bootlegging, Corruption, and the Schumacher Family in Prohibition Era Fargo-Moorhead,” 81.1: 3-15
Butts, Michéle Tucker, review of, 71.3 & 4: 45
By His Own Hand? The Mysterious Death of Meriwether Lewis, review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56

Calloway, Colin G., review of, 72.3 & 4: 58; 80:1, 34-36
Cambrian Period, in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 2-7; fossils from, 73.1 & 2: 2-7
Cameahwait–Shoshone chief, and Lewis and Clark Expedition, 71.3 & 4: 19-26, 72.1 & 2: 47-54
Camels, in prehistoric N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 37-47
Camp, Gregory S., articles by, 69.1: 18-24, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79, 70.1: 28-35, 70.2: 22-30, 70.3: 26-35, 70.4: 2-10, 71.1 & 2: 65-71, 71.3 & 4: 19-26, 72.1 & 2: 47-54, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; reviews by, 70.1: 41, 71.1 & 2: 72, 72.1 & 2: 62; 74:3 & 4:45-56
Campbell, Hugh–U.S. attorney, and James McLaughlin, 71.3 & 4: 2-18
Campbell, John Martin, review of, 71.1 & 2: 76-77
The Canadian Wheat Board: Marketing in the New Millennium (Schmitz and Furtan), review of, 67.4: 36
Cando, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Canfield, Thomas Hawley–early Fargo developer, 68.4: 2-25, 69.1: 25-28, 70.1: 36
Cannonball Sea–prehistoric ocean in N. Dak, 73.1 & 2: 26-36
Capitol, building fire, 68.4: inside back cover
Carrels, Peter, review of, 67.1: 36
Carrie T. Chaffee estate–remnant of bonanza farm, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Carrington, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Carroll, Eugene T., review by, 66.2: 40
Carroll, Francis, review of, 70.2: 33
Carroll, James T., review by, 68.4: 39, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
Carstensen, Vernon, ed., review of, 66.3 & 4: 64
Carter, Jimmy–president, and Arthur Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46, and grain embargo against Soviet Union, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Carter, Sarah, ed., review of, 68.4: 41
Casler, Michael M., article by, 80.4: 3-13
Cass County Relief, and the Fargo Nursery School, 76:3 & 4, 2-15
Casselton, No.Dak., and George Sinner, 75:3 & 4: 54
Catlin, George–artist, and Four Bears, 70.4: 12-31; and red pipestone, 70.4: 11; and voyage up Missouri River, 70.4: 12-31; biography of, 70.4: 12-31; painting of Big Bend on the Upper Missouri, 70.4: front and back cover; painting of Sioux encampment, 70.3: back cover; paintings and writings of, 70.4: 12-31; plant and mineral observations of, 67.2: 16-25; and Square Buttes, 75:1 & 2: 15-23; and James Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35
Cattle industry, and newspapers, 67.2: 26-38
Cattlemen and Cow Town Editors: The Bad Lands Cow Boy of Dakota Territory,” 67.1: 26-38
Celebrating a Century of the American Anthropological Association (Darnell and Gleach, eds.), review of, 71.3 & 4: 48-49
Cemeteries, in Morton and Oliver Counties, 82.2: 20-34
Champsosaurus–prehistoric reptile, in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 26-36; fossils of, 73.1 & 2: 26-36
The Changing Presentation of the American Indian: Museums and Native Cultures (National
Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution), review of, 69.1: 31
Charbonneau, Jean Baptiste–son of Sakakawea and Toussaint Charbonneau, 71.1 & 2: 65-71
Charbonneau, Toussaint–guide, Lewis and Clark Expedition, 70.4: 2-10, 71.1 & 2: 65-71, 71.3 & 4: 19-26
Charles M. Russell: Printed Rarities from Private Collections, review of, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Charlie Russell Roundup: Essays on America’s Favorite Cowboy Artist (Dippie, ed.), review of, 68.3: 43
“Chasing an Enigma: Frontier Photographer Orlando S. Goff,” 81.2: 3-26
Chasing the Glitter: Black Hills Milling, 1874-1959 (Clow), review of, 71.1 & 2: 73-75
Chateau de Mores, view of, 66.1: inside cover
“Chief Gall and Abe Lincoln’s Railroad,” 74:3 & 4:17-27
Child, Brenda J., review of, 66.3 & 4: 62
Child care, and the Fargo Nursery School, 76:3 & 4, 2-15
Child-rearing, customs of the Sioux, 66.3 & 4: 3-16
Children of the West: Family Life on the Frontier (Luchetti), review of, 70.2: 36
Children of the Western Plains: The Nineteenth-Century Experience (Holt), review of, 72.1 & 2: 61
Chiles, Robert, article by, 81.1: 16-31
Chinook Indians, and Lewis and Clark Expedition, 72.1 & 2: 47-54, 72.3 & 4: 38-57
Chippewa (Turtle Mountain), and establishment of Turtle Mountain Reservation, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79; and U.S. Indian policy, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79; poverty of, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79; and Trenton, N. Dak., 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79
Christianity and quilting, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
Christgau, John, review of,78:3 & 4, 35-40
Chouteau, Pierre, Jr.–fur trader, and Meriwether Lewis, 72.3 & 4: 38-57
Church architecture, and Independence Congregational Church, 82.1: 3-17
Civilian Conservation Corps – in North Dakota; Indian Division in N. Dak., 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79; work at state parks, 68.3: 14-19; 78.1 & 2: 23-36, 80.2: 18-21; Weldon Gratton and the North Dakota badlands, 80.2: 3-15
“The Civilian Conservation Corps in North Dakota,” 80.2: 18-21
Civil rights, and Senator William Langer, 76:3 & 4, 22-40; and American Indians, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
Clark, William–explorer, 70.3: 26-35, 71.1 & 2: 65-71, 71.3 & 4: 19-26, 72.1 & 2: 47-54, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; and George Catlin, 70.4: 12-31; as superintendent of Indian affairs for Louisiana Territory, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; in St. Louis, 72.3 & 4: 38-57
Climate change, in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 2-60
Clinton, William Jefferson – president, 75:3 & 4: 54
Clow, Richmond L., article by, 71.3 & 4: 2-18; review of, 71.1 & 2: 73-75; review by, 74:1 & 2:
44-55; 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Coal (lignite), family mines, 67.2: 16-25; mining of, 67.2: 2-15 and gasification plant, and Gov. Sinner, 75:3 & 4: 2-53, shortage of, 80.4: 14-30
Coal, Cuba, and Courage: The Adventuresome Spirit of Annie C. Lind,” 67.2: 2-15 
Cochran, Mary E., review of, 68.4: 39
Cody, William F. (“Buffalo Bill”)–scout and showman, and Sitting Bull, 72.3 & 4: 2-21; and Wild West shows, 72.3 & 4: 2-21
Cold War in a Cold Land: Fighting Communism on the Northern Plains (Mills), review of, 80.4: 34
Coleman, William S. E., review of, 70.2: 32
Collier, John–BIA director, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79
Collin, Andrea Winkjer, with Richard E. Collin, review of, 77:1 & 2, 40-46
Collin, Richard E., review by, 70.3: 37; 74:3 & 4:45-56; 77:1 & 2, 40-46
Collins, Mary---minister and missionary on the Standing Rock Reservation, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
Collins, Ross F., article by, 67.2: 26-38; review by, 79:1, 35-36
Colonel Richard Irving Dodge: The Life and Times of a Career Army Officer, review of, 74:3 &
Colonial wars, history of, 69.1: 18-24
Columns of Vengeance: Soldiers, Sioux, and the Punitive Expeditions 1863-1865, review of, 79:1, 35-36
Combat Officer; A Memoir of War in the South Pacific (Walker), review of, 73.3 & 4: 40
            Commission, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Allen Olson, 74:1 & 2: 2-35
Community Chest, and the Fargo Nursery School, 76:3 & 4, 2-15
Comparing Cowboys and Frontiers (Slatta), review of, 66.3 & 4: 61-62
Confluence of Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers, a naturalist’s look at, 66.2: 15-22; description of by Meriwether Lewis, 69.2, 3, & 4: 84-87; landscape around 1800-2000, 69.2, 3, & 4: 2-23; wildlife at, 69.2, 3, & 4: 2-23
Connell-Szasz, Margaret, review by,75:1 & 2: 26-42
Conrad, Marc, article by, 80.2: 31-34
Conservation issues, in North Dakota, 66.2: 15-22
Constructing the Little House: Gender, Culture, and Laura Ingalls Wilder (Romines), review of, 67.4: 37
“The Construction and Reconstruction of Turtle River State Park,” 68.3: 14-19
Controlled Recklessness: Ed Lemmon and the Open Range (Sanderson), review of, 81.1: 34-35
Cook, Reverend Joseph W.–missionary, 67.3: 24-37
Cooke, Jay, and the Northern Pacific Railroad, 70.3: 2-18
Coomber, James E., review by,74:3 & 4:45-56
Cooper, Jerry, review of, 71.3 & 4: 46-47
Cooperative Commonwealth: Coops in Rural Minnesota, 1859-1939 (Keillor), review of, 67.2:
Cooperstown, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Corn priests (Mandan), pictograph of by Little Owl (Sitting Rabbit), 70.4: 2-10
Corcoran, James, review by, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Cordery, Stacy A., review by, 80.4: 34-35
“‘Corn in the Crib is like Money in the Bank’: George F. Will and the Oscar H. Will & Company, 1917 – 1955,” 76:1 & 2, 2-25
Corn Palaces and Butter Queens: A History of Crop Art and Dairy Sculpture, review of, 78:3 & 4, 35-40
 “The Corps of Discovery and the Final Challenges in Reaching the Pacific Ocean,” 72.1 & 2: 47-54
“The Corps of Discovery Takes Shape,” 70.3: 26-35
Corry, E. N.–U.S. Court Commissioner, and James McLaughlin, 71.3 & 4: 2-18
Cottrell, B.J. and L.H. Larson, review of, 77:1 & 2, 40-46
“Courting the Farm Vote on the Northern Plains: Presidential Candidate Al Smith, Governor Walter Maddock, and the Ambivalent Politics of 1928,” 81.1: 16-31
Coutts, Robert J., review of, 69.1: 32
            cover, 73.3 & 4: 2-31; at Fort Stevenson, 73.3 & 4: 2-31; and the Civil War, 73.3 & 4: 2-
Cowboy Poetry and Cowboy Poets (Stanley and Thatcher, eds.), review of, 68.1: 37
Cowboys, newspaper articles about, 67.2: 26-38
Cowboys, Ranchers and the Cattle Business: Cross-Border Perspectives on Ranching History (Evans, Carter, and Yeo, eds), review of, 68.4: 41
Coyote Warrior: One Man, Three Tribes, and the Trial that Forged a Nation (VanDevelder),    review of, 73.3 & 4: 31
Creating Christian Indians: Native Clergy in the Presbyterian Church (Lewis), review of, 72.3 & 4: 64
Cretaceous Period, in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 8-24; fossils from, 73.1 & 2: 8-24
Crime, in Fargo, 66.3 & 4: 41-50
Crosby, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Cross Ranch State Park–preservation of, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Cross, Raymond, review by, 72.1 & 2: 55
Crow’s Breast – Hidatsa chief, sketch of, 73.3 & 4: 2-31
Cuba, American colonies in, 67.2: 2-15
            culture of, 66.3 & 4: 3-16; de Trobriand and, 73.3 & 4: 2-31
Culbertson, Alexander—fur trader, and James Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35
Cult of Domesticity, and American Indian quilters, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
Culture and Customs of the Sioux Indians, review of, 78:1 & 2, 37-43
Custer, Elizabeth Bacon – military wife and writer, 76:3 & 4, 22-40
Custer, George A., and conflict with David Stanley, 70.3: 2-18; and Yellowstone Surveying Expedition of 1873, 70.3: 2-18; newspaper accounts of Sioux skirmishes written by, 70.3: 2-18; and Gall, 74:3 & 4:17-27; and writings about, photograph of, 76:3 & 4, 22-40; and photographs by Orlando S. Goff, 81.2: 3-26
Custer's Trials: A Life on the Frontier of a New America (Stiles), review of, 82.1: 37
Cut Nose–Nez Perce chief, and Lewis and Clark Expedition, 72.3 & 4: 38-57
Cutting into the Meatpacking Line: Workers and Change in the Rural Midwest (Fink), review of, 66.2: 38

Dahl, C. P.–1960 Republican candidate for governor, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Dalrymple, Betsy, review of, 80.3: 31
Dakota Circle: Excursions on the True Plains (Isern), review of, 69.1: 35
Dakota Conflict of 1862, and Gall, 74:3 & 4:17-27
Dakota Cross-Bearer: The Life and World of a Native American Bishop (Cochran), review of,
68.4: 39
Dakota Doughboys in the Desert: The Experiences of a North Dakota National Guard Company during the Mexican Border Campaign of 1916-1917,” 71.1 & 2: 50-64
Dakota Indians, see Sioux
Dakota: The Story of the Northern Plains, review of, 78:3 & 4, 35-40
Daley, Janet, see also Jury, Jan Daley, review by, 69.1: 33, 71.1 & 2: 73
Danbom, David B., articles by, 66.3 & 4: 41-50, 70.2: 2-21; review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56; review by, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
Danbom, David B. and Karen R., article by, 76:3 & 4, 2-15
Dance in a Buffalo Skull, review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Dance stick, sandhill crane, 66.2: 5
Danz, Harold, review of, 66.1: 38
Darnell, Regna, ed., review of, 71.3 & 4: 48-49
Dasovich, Steve,  review by, 76:3 & 4, 41-48
Davies, Richard O., ed., review of, 72.3 & 4: 62
Davis, John E.–governor, 67.4: 20-35; and Quentin Burdick, 70.1: 2-25; and Carroll Day, 70.1: 2-25; and Milton Rue, 70.1: 2-25; and appointment of Norman Brunsdale to U.S. senate, 70.1: 2-25; and highway construction, 70.1: 2-25; and Nonpartisan League, 70.1: 2-25; and railroad unions, 70.1: 2-25; and Republican Organizing Committee, 70.1: 2-25; and William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; as American Legion commander, 70.1: 2-25; as army officer in WWII, 70.1: 2-25; as Civil Defense Director, 70.1: 2-25; as governor, 70.1: 2-25; as state senator, 70.1: 2-25; boyhood, 70.1: 2-25; campaign advertisement for, 70.1: front cover; military medals of, 70.1: back cover
Davis, Leslie B., and John W. Fisher Jr., eds., review of, 82.2: 37-40
Davison, Kathleen, article by, 70.1: 26-27; article/sidebar by, 74:1 & 2: 26-27; 74:3 & 4:28-44
Davison, Kathleen, Bonnie T. Johnson and Neil D. Howe, eds., review of, 76:3 & 4, 41-48
Dawes Act, and Turtle Mountain Ojibwas and Métis, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79
Day, Carroll E.– state senator, 70.1: 2-25
De Mores, Marquis, and A. T. Packard, 67.2: 26-38
De Smet, Father Pierre Jean–priest, 67.3: 24-37
De Trobriand, Philippe Regis–military commander, 73.3 & 4: 2-31; artwork of, 69.1: inside
cover, 73.3 & 4: 2-31; at Fort Stevenson, 73.3& 4:2-31;  and the Civil War, 73.3 & 4: 2-31; writings of, 73.3 & 4: 2-31
Dean, Virgil, review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Dear Brother: Letters of William Clark to Jonathan Clark (Holmberg), review of, 72.1 & 2: 56
DeArment, Robert K., review of, 80:1, 34-36
DeLong, Winifred, review by, 72.1 & 2: 58
DeMallie, Raymond J., ed., review of, 70.3: 37
“Denbigh Station and Experimental Forest: Soil Conservation in the Plains States,” 78:1 & 2, 23-36
Democratic party, in the 1960s and 1970s, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Democratic-NPL alliance, 67.4: 20-35, 71.1 & 2: 2-49, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Dempsey, Hugh A., ed., review of, 72.3 & 4: 59
Department of Accounts and Purchases–establishment of, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Depression, and farm policy, 66.3&4: 31-40; in Fargo, 66.3 & 4: 41-50, 70.2: 2-21
DeSersa, Aaron, Jr., Clifton, and Esther Black Elk, review of, 70.1: 41
“The Designed Landscape of the North Dakota Badlands: Weldon and Marjorie Gratton, Faithful Stewards and Genuine Collaborators,” 80.2: 3-15
DeSomet, Michael–Sioux guide, a.k.a. Joseph DeSomet Lewis, 67.3: 24-37
Devil’s Bargains: Tourism in the Twentieth-Century American West (Rothman), review of, 66.3
& 4: 62  
Devils Lake, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
DeVries, Jacqueline R., review by, 68.4: 40
Dickson, Ephraim D., review of, 77:1 & 2, 40-46
Diederich, Mark, review of, 75:3 & 4: 54
Di Silvestro, Roger L., review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Dickinson, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Dickson, Ephraim D., review of, 77:1 & 2, 40-46
DiDonato, Gail, review by, 68.4: 41
Diedrich, Mark, with Louis Garcia, review of, 77.3 & 4: 40, 81.1: 36
Dill, Chris, reviews by, 66.3 & 4: 63, 72.3 & 4: 61
Dinomummy: The Life, Death, and Discovery of Dakota, a Dinosaur from Hell Creek, review of,
74:3 & 4:45-56
Dinosaurs, in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 16-24
Dinosaurs, Sharks, and Woolly Mammoths: Glimpses of Life in North Dakota’s Prehistoric Past,” 73.1 & 2: 2-60
Dippie, Brian W., ed., review of, 68.3: 43; review by, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
The Discontented Gopher, review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
“The Dispossessed: The Ojibwa and Métis of Northwest North Dakota,” 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79
Dixon, Roland -- archaeologist and mentor to George Will, 76:1 & 2, 2-25
Dobak, William A., review by, 66.2: 37
Doerfler, Jill, review by, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
Dogsleds, illustrations of, 69.1: inside cover
Domesticating the West: The Re-creation of the Nineteenth-Century American Middle Class,
review of, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
Dorion, Pierre–trapper, as interpreter for Lewis and Clark Expedition, 70.3: 26-35
Down and Out on the Family Farm: Rural Rehabilitation in the Great Plains, 1929 - 1945             (Grant), review of, 73. 3 & 4: 34
“Dr. Orin G. Libby: A Commemoration of the Father of North Dakota History,” 68.4: 2-25
Drache, Hiram M.,  review by, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
Draft/conscription, and Senator William Langer, 76:3 & 4, 22-40
Drake, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Driver, Ina Mae---quilter from Mandaree, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
Dromaeosaurs–dinosaurs in prehistoric N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 16-24; fossils of, 73.1 & 2: 16-24
Duke Paul of Wuerttemberg on the Missouri River (von Sachsen-Altenburg and Dyer), review
of, 66.3 & 4: 63
Dunbar, William–explorer, 70.2: 22-30
Dunbar-Hunter Expedition, 70.2: 22-30
Duncan, Dayton, review of, 73.3 & 4: 36
Duttenhefner, Kathy, article by, 80.2: 38-41
Dust Bowl, causes of, 69.2, 3, & 4: 2-23
Dyer, Robert L., review of, 66.3 & 4: 63

E Company–Williston, N. Dak. National Guard unit, and Mexican Border Campaign of 1916-1917, 71.1 & 2: 50-64; roster of, 71.1 & 2: 50-64
Early American Decorative Arts, 1620-1860 (Krill and Eversmann), review of, 70.2: 35
Earth Woman (Sak’wi’ah’ki, or Mary Kipp)—see Sak’wi’ah’ki
Eastend, Sask., history of, 66.1: 16-20
Economy, development in the 1960s and 1970s, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; crisis in the 1980s, 74:1 & 2: 2-
Edgerton, Keith, review by, 74:1 & 2: 44-55; 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Edmontosaurus, in prehistoric N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 16-24; fossils of, 73.1 & 2: 16-24
Eighmey, Rae Kathleen, review of, 77:1 & 2, 40-46
Eisenhuth, Laura J.— North Dakota superintendent of public instruction and first woman elected to statewide office in the US, 79:1, 13-25; and politics in North Dakota, 79:1, 13-25; as teacher, 79:1, 13-25; and 1892 and 1894 elections, 79:1, 13-25; and State Library, 79:1, 13-25; and compulsory education, 79:1, 13-25;
Ekquist, Karla, review by, 70.2: 34
“Eliminating ‘Blight’: Urban Renewal Comes to Fargo,” 80:1, 14-27
Elk Butte Women’s Society, Standing Rock, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
Ellison, Douglas W., review by, 77.3 & 4: 40; review of (ed.), 80.2: 51-52
Elmer L. Andersen: A Man’s Reach (Andersen), review of, 70.1: 39
Elmslie, George Grant-architect, work in Bismarck, 81.3: 16-31
Emergency Farm Mortgage Act, 66.3 & 4: 31-40
Emergency Nursery Schools, 76:3 & 4, 2-15
Emerson, Thomas E., review of, 70.1: 37
Emmons, David M., review by, 71.1 & 2: 77
Empire of Dust: Settling and Abandoning the Prairie Dry Belt (Jones), review of, 71.3 & 4: 49
Encounter on the Great Plains: Scandinavian Settlers and the Dispossession of Dakota Indians, 1890-1930 (Hansen), review of, 81.3: 35-36
Employment in Fargo, and class, 70.2: 2-21; and gender, 70.2: 2-21; during Depression, 70.2: 2-21
Encyclopedia of Local History (Kammen and Prendergast, eds.), review of, 69.1: 34
Encyclopedia of the Great Plains (Wishart), review of, 73.3 & 4: 37
Encyclopedia of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Woodger and Toropov), review of, 72.3 & 4: 61
Energy boom in 1970s, and Arthur Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and State Water Commission, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and taxation, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; in western N. Dak., 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Allen I. Olson, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
Engelhardt, Carroll, article by, 68.4: 26-38; reviews by, 68.2: 39, 71.3 & 4: 44-45, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
Eocene Epoch, in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 37-47; fossils from, 73.1 & 2: 37-47
Equity cooperative movement, 67.3: 2-23
Erickson, Doug, review of, 72.3 & 4: 63
Erickson, Vern–artist, painting of Fort Mandan, 70.4: 2-10; painting of Hidatsa chief Le Borgne meeting York, 71.1 & 2: 65-71
Erik Ramstad and the Empire Builder (Keillor), review of, 71.3 & 4: 44-45
Evans, Henry–captain, First North Dakota Infantry Regiment, E Company (Williston), 71.1 & 2: 50-64
Evans, John Thomas–fur trader and explorer, 68.2: 27-37
Evans, Simon, ed., review of, 68.4: 41
Evans, Sterling, article by, 68.1: 20-36; reviews of, 75:1 & 2: 26-42; 75:3 & 4: 54; reviews by, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Eversmann, Pauline K., review of, 70.2: 35
Ewig, Rick, review by, 74:1 & 2: 44-55, 77:3 & 4, 40
Ewiger Saatz: Everlasting Yeast, the Food Culture of the Germans from Russia in Emmons County, Logan County, and McIntosh County, North Dakota (Balcom), review of, 80.2: 52
 “Experiences as a Member of President Lincoln’s Bodyguard, 1863-65,” 74:3 & 4:6-16
The Extraordinary Work of Ordinary Writing: Annie Ray’s Diary (Sinor), review of, 72.1 & 2: 62
Eye of the Explorer: Views of the Northern Pacific Railroad Survey, 1853-1854, review of,77:3 & 4, 40

Faces of the Great Plains: Prairie Wildlife (Johnsgard and Gress), review of, 72.1 & 2: 60
Fahlgren Report, on Turtle Mountain Ojibwas and Métis, 69.2, 3, & 4: 110-112
Falley, Hazel Quick-FERA and WPA division director, 81.4:3-15
Family, Politics, and Show Business: The Photographs of Sitting Bull,” 72.3 & 4: 2-21     
Fancher, Fredrick—governor, and the North Dakota Constitutional Convention, 79:1, 4-12
 “Fargo and the Great Depression,” 66.3 & 4: 41-50
Fargo, N. Dak., auto racing in, 74:1 & 2: 36-43; and employment practices during Depression,           
70.2: 2-21; and social conventions in the 1930s, 70.2: 2-21; and the Lake Superior and Puget Sound Company, 70.1: 36; and the Northern Pacific Railroad, 68.4: 26-38, 69.1: 25-28; history of, 66.3 & 4: 41-50, 68.4: 26-38; Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22; Civic Center, 80:1, 14-27; and Urban Renewal, 80:1, 14-27; and West Acres Shopping Center, 80:1, 14-27;
Fargo Nursery School, 76:3 & 4, 2-15
Fargo Opera House, 67.1: 10-22
Fargo Public Schools, and the Fargo Nursery School, 76:3 & 4, 2-15
Fargo Urban Renewal Agency, 80:1, 14-27
Farm policy, during the Depression, 66.3 & 4: 31-40
Farm program-federal, 66.3 & 4: 31-40
Farming, and the Oscar H. Will & Company, 76:1 & 2, 2-25       
Farmers Holiday Association, and Usher Burdick, 67.3: 2-23
Farmers Union, and Arthur Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; in McKenzie County in the 1920s and
‘30s, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; Junior youth movement, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Father Francis M. Craft: Missionary to the Sioux (Foley), review of, 71.1 & 2: 77-78
Fauchald, Nora–singer, 67.1: 10-22
Federal Aid to Wildlife Protection Act, see also Pittman-Robertson Act, 78:1 & 2, 2-22
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), 76:3 & 4, 2-15; and recreation/theater program, 81.4: 3-15
Federal Reserve, and effect on agriculture, 66.3 & 4: 31-40
Feick, George Jr.-architect, work in Bismarck, 81.3: 16-31
Feraca, Stephen E., review of, 66.2: 40
Field, Bruce E., review of, 67.1: 37
“Fifty Years Later: One Moment that Changed Clint Hill’s Life,” 78:3 & 4, 22-34
Fighting Bob La Follette: The Righteous Reformer (Unger), review of, 70.1: 37
Filibustering, and Senator William Langer, 76:3 & 4, 22-40
Finding Lewis and Clark: Old Trails, New Directions, review of, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
Finding the West: Explorations with Lewis and Clark (Ronda), review of, 71.1 & 2: 72
Fink, Deborah, review of, 66.2: 38
Finlayson, Christine – North Dakota Supervisor of Home Economics Education, and the Fargo Nursery School, 76:3 & 4, 2-15
Fire, impact of on Great Plains environment, 69.2, 3, & 4: 2-23; use of by Native Americans, 69.2, 3, & 4: 2-23
Firkus, Angela, review by, 77.3 & 4:40, 81.4:36
First North Dakota Infantry, and the Spanish-American War, 81.3: 3-15; and the Philippine-American War, 81.3: 3-15; and Mexican Border Campaign of 1916-1917, 71.1 & 2: 50-64
Fish in the Lakes, Wild Rice, and Game in Abundance: Testimony on Behalf of Mille Lacs Ojibwe Hunting and Fishing Rights (McClurken), review of, 67.3: 38
Fisher, Clyde–scientist, and Woodcraft League “Indian Expedition,” 70.3: 19-25
Fisher, John W., Jr., and Leslie B. Davis, eds., review of, 82.2: 37-40
Fiske, Frank Bennett–photographer, and One Bull, 66.3 & 4: 3-16
Fiske, Jo-Anne, ed., review of, 67.3: 38-39
Fjelde, Herman O, and Lincoln bust gift to Norway, 74:3 & 4:28-44
Fjelde, Jakob—sculptor, father of Paul, and early death, 74:3 & 4:28-44
Fjelde, Margrethe, mother of Paul, homesteader, 74:3 & 4:28-44
Fjelde, Paul—sculptor, and Lincoln bust, 74:3 & 4:28-44;
“‘A Flagrant Outrage’: James McLaughlin, Indian Country, and Illegal Bison Hunting,” 71.3 & 4: 2-18
Flathead Indians, and Lewis and Clark Expedition, 72.1 & 2: 47-54
Fleming, Chuck – Gov. Sinner’s Chief of Staff, 75:3 & 4: 2-53
Flight of the Odegard, review of,75:1 & 2: 26-42
Florence: The True Story of a Country Schoolteacher in Minnesota and North Dakota (Wendland), review of, 72.1 & 2: 58
Flores, Dan, review of, 71.1 & 2: 72-73, 81.3: 34-35
Fly, Joseph–Hampton student, 68.3: 20-42
Foley, James W.—poet laureate of ND, and poem to commemorate the Lincoln bust gift to Norway in 1914, 74:3 & 4:28-44
Foley, Thomas W., review of, 71.1 & 2: 77-78, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Foley, William E., review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Folk medicine, of German-Russians, 66.3 & 4: 51-60
Folsom, Cora Mae-Hampton educator, 68.2: 2-23
Food Will Win the War: Minnesota Crops, Cooks, and Conservation during World War I, review of, 77:1 & 2, 40-46
For All to See: The Little Bighorn Battle in Plains Indian Art (Brizée-Bowen), review of, 72.3 & 4: 60
Forgotten Fires: Native Americans and the Transient Wilderness (Stewart), review of, 71.3 & 4
Forgotten Lives: African Americans in South Dakota, review of, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Former Governors’ Mansion, and Grace Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; history of, 70.1: 26-27; preservation of, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; view of, 66.3 & 4: inside cover
Fort Abraham Lincoln, and Elizabeth Bacon Custer, 76:3 & 4, 16-21; State Park, 80.2: 22-25
“Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park: A Beacon for Life on the Prairie,” 80.2: 22-25
Fort Berthold (originally Fort James),, de Trobriand at, 73.3 & 4: 2-31, sketches of, 73.3 & 4: 2-31; and James Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and quilters, quilts, and quilting, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
Fort Berthold Reservation, and Gov. Sinner, 75:3 & 4: 2-53; and Rev. Charles Hall and Independence, 82.1: 3-17
Fort Buford and Great Sioux War, 69.2, 3, & 4: 34-49; and protection of surveying crews, 69.2, 3, & 4: 34-49; and reliance on steamboat, 69.2, 3, & 4: 34-49; clothing and equipment deficiencies at, 69.2, 3, & 4: 101-104; history of, 69.2, 3, & 4: 34-49; life at, 69.2, 3, & 4: 34-60, 98-100; military correspondence from, 69.2, 3, & 4: 90-109; nutrition at, 69.2, 3, & 4: 94-97; photo of regimental band at, 69.2, 3, & 4: back cover; post trader at, 69.2, 3, & 4: 105-106; primary documents from, 69.2, 3, & 4: 81-112; return of Sitting Bull to, 66.3 & 4: 3-16, 69.2, 3, & 4: 34-49, 107-109; sanitation at, 69.2, 3, & 4: 50-60; view of, 66.2: inside cover
Fort Clark, and George Catlin, 70.4: 12-31; and Mih-tutta-hang-kusch, 70.4: 12-31, 77:1 & 2,        36-39;  and James Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; archaeological excavations and investigations at,       77:1 & 2, 36-39;
Fort Clark and Its Indian Neighbors: A Trading Post on the Upper Missouri, review of, 77:3 & 4, 40
Fort Floyd, excavations of, 80.4: 3-13; and James Kipp, 77.1 & 2: 2-35, 80.4: 3-13; location of, 80.4: 3-13
Fort Laramie Treaty, and Fort Buford, 69.2, 3, & 4: 34-49
Fort Lincoln, and Mexican Border Campaign of 1916-1917, 71.1 & 2: 50-64
Fort Makay, 68.2: 27-37
Fort Mandan, construction of, 70.4: 2-10
Fort Piegan, and James Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35
Fort Ransom, N. Dak., history of, 67.1: 2-9
Fort Stevenson, history of, 73.3 & 4: 2-31; de Trobriand at, 73.3 & 4: 2-31; sketches of, 73.3 &
4: 2-31; painting of trader’s store at, 69.1: inside cover; State Park, 80.2: 30
“Fort Stevenson State Park: Water Sports, Walleye, and More,” 80.2: 30
Fort Totten, de Trobriand at, 73.3 & 4: 2-31; sketch of, 73.3 & 4: 2-31
Fort Totten Indian School, and quilting, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
Fort Union and the Upper Missouri Fur Trade (Barbour), review of, 70.2: 31
“The Fort Union of the National Park Service,” 69.2, 3, & 4: 24-32
Fort Union, architect of, 80.4: 3-13; reconstruction of, 69.2, 3, & 4: 24-32; and George Catlin, 70.4: 12-31; and James Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35
Fort, Greenbury–Illinois Representative, and protection of buffalo, 71.3 & 4: 2-18
Forts of the Northern Plains: Guide to Historic Military Posts of the Plains Indian Wars, review of, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Fortier, Andrew C., review of, 70.1: 37
Forty and Eights (boxcars), 67.4: 2-19 & inside back cover
Fossils, in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 2-60; significance of, 73.1 & 2: 2-5
Fossils, in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 2-60; significance of, 73.1 & 2: 2-5
Four Bears–Mandan chief, and George Catlin, 70.4: 12-31; descendants of, 70.4: 32-36
The Four Hills of Life: Ojibwe Wisdom, review of, 76:3 & 4, 41-48
Four Robes–wife of Sitting Bull, photographs of, 72.3 & 4: 2-21
Fox, Andrew–Hampton student, 68.2: 2-23, 68.3: 20-42
Fox Hills Sea–prehistoric ocean in N. Dak, 73.1 & 2: 8-15
Frazier, Lynn J.–governor/senator, 66.3 & 4: 31-40
Frazier-Lemke Refinancing Bill, 66.3 & 4: 31-40
A Free and Hardy Life: Theodore Roosevelt’s Sojourn in the American West, review of, 78:1 & 2, 37-43
Frederick Jackson Turner: Strange Roads Going Down (Bogue), review of, 66.3 & 4: 61
French Gratitude Train, 67.4: inside back cover
Frissell, Hollis Burke–Hampton educator, 68.2: 2-23, 68.3: 20-42
Frogner Park, Oslo (Kristiania)—site of Lincoln bust, gift to Norway from North Dakota, 74:3 & 4:28-44
From Prairie Farmer to Entrepreneur: The Transformation of Midwestern Agriculture, review
of, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
From the Banat to North Dakota. A History of the German-Hungarian Pioneers in Western    
North Dakota, review of, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
“From the Sites: Fort Clark Trading Post,” 77:1 & 2, 36-39
“From Theodore Roosevelt to the Izaak Walton League, a Social History of Hunting in North Dakota, 1880 -1950,” 78:1 & 2, 2-22
The Frontier Army in the Settlement of the West (Tate), review of, 68.2: 38
Frontier Children (Peavy and Smith), review of, 68.4: 40
Frontier Diplomats: The Life and Times of Alexander Culbertson and Natoyist Siksina (Wischmann), review of, 69.1: 31
Frontier Farewell: The 1870s and the End of the Old West, review of, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
The Frontier Missionary:  Three Tribes.  A Man of God.  A Journey of Faith, review of, 76:3 & 4, 41-48
The Frontier Scout–newspaper at Fort Union, Fort Rice, 69.2, 3, & 4: 88-89; July 27, 1864 issue, 69.2, 3, & 4: 89
Frontier Soldier: An Enlisted Man’s Journal of the Sioux and Nez Perce Campaigns, 1877 (Zimmer), review of, 66.2: 37-38
Frosted, Thomas–Hampton student, 68.3: 20-42
Fuller, Edward M.–nurseryman, 68.1: 2-19
Fundingsland, Kim,review of, 76:3 & 4, 41-48
Fur trade, and depletion of bison, 69.2, 3, & 4: 2-23; and the North West Company, 71.3 & 4: 31-42; as legacy of Lewis and Clark Expedition, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; at Pembina, 71.3 & 4: 31-42; history of, 68.2: 27-37, 70.2: 22-30; on the Upper Missouri, 68.2: 27-37, 70.1: 28-35
Furtan, Harley, review of, 67.4: 36
“Further Thoughts on President Abraham Lincoln,” 75:1 & 2: 24-25

Gagnon, Gregory, reviews by, 70.2: 32, 72.3 & 4: 65; 74:3 & 4:45-56; 75:1 & 2: 26-42; 77:3 & 4, 40, 78:1 & 2, 37-43; review of, 78:1 & 2, 37-43
Gagnon, Woody–director of administration for Governor Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Gall, or The-Man-That-Goes-In-The-Middle--Hunkpapa chief, and the Northern Pacific
Railway, 74:3 & 4:17-27; and the Treaty of Fort Laramie, 74:3 & 4:17-27; and Sitting Bull, 74:3 & 4:17-27; and Custer, 74:3 & 4:17-27
Gallagher, Marsha V., ed., review of, 82.2: 37-40; with Stephen S. Witte, ed., review of, 75.1 & 2: 26-40, 78.1 & 2: 37-43, 80.4: 35-36
Galvanized Yankees on the Upper Missouri: The Face of Loyalty (Butts), review of, 71.3 & 4:45
Gambling, 74:1 & 2: 2-35; 72:1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Gannon, Clell G. – artist and poet, and Oscar H. Will & Company catalog art, 76:1 & 2, 26-33;  and Burleigh County Courthouse, 76:1 & 2, 26-33;  and George Will and Russell Reid, 76:1 & 2, 2-25 and 26-33; and Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara history and culture, 76:1 & 2, 26-33; and San Haven tuberculosis sanitarium, 76:1 & 2, 26-33. Article by, 66.2: 2-14
Garcia, Louis, with Mark Diedrich, review of, , 77.3 & 4: 40, 81.1: 36
Gardening, and the Oscar H. Will & Company, 76:1 & 2, 2-25, and Albert F. Yeager, 76:1 & 2, 2-25, and Native American seeds, 76:1 & 2, 2-25
Garrison Dam, and William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and Allen I. Olson, 74:1 & 2: 2-35
Gateway to the Northern Plains: Railroads and the Birth of Fargo and Moorhead, review of, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
Geib, Harriet Hagen–sister of WWII MIA, 72.3 & 4: 25-37
Geist, Troyd, review by, 70.1: 39
Gender roles, and employment during Depression, 70.2: 2-21; and quilting, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
General Crook and the Western Frontier (Robinson), review of, 70.3: 37
Geologic formations, in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 2-60
Geology of the Lewis and Clark Trail in North Dakota (Hoganson and Murphy), review of, 71.3
& 4:44
Geology, of N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 2-60
George Catlin, the Mandans, and the ‘Red Stone’ Quarry,” 70.4: 11
George McGovern: A Political Life, a Political Legacy (Watson), review of, 73.3 & 4
German Lutherans, and cemeteries, 82.2: 20-34
German-Russians, culture and history of, 66.3 & 4: 51-60; folk humor of, 66.3 & 4: 51-60
Ghost Dance, and Sitting Bull, 66.3 & 4: 3-16; at Standing Rock Reservation, 68.3: 20-42
Gidley, Mick, review of, 70.2: 35
Gifts from the Thunder Beings: Indigenous Archery and European Firearms in the Northern Plains and Central Subarctic, 1670-1870, review of, 80:1, 34-36
Gilman, Carolyn, review by, 70.4: 37, 81.3: 34
Gilman, Rhonda, review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Gipp, David – president of United Tribes Technical College, and Gov. Sinner, 75:3 & 4: 2-53
Giveaways, in American Indian society, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
Giving Voters a Voice: The Origins of Initiative and Referendum in America (Piott), review of, 72.3 & 4: 58
Gjellstad, Melissa and Danielle Skjelver, trans., review of, 81.2: 30-31
Glaciers, in prehistoric N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 48-55; effects on landscape, 73.1 & 2: 48-55
Gleach, Frederic W., ed., review of, 71.3 & 4: 48-49
Goble, Paul, review of, 78:1 & 2, 37-43
Goff, Anna E. “Annie” Eaton—music teacher and socialite, 81.2: 3-26
Goff, Orlando S.–photographer, 72.3 & 4: 2-24, 81.2: 3-26; and Sitting Bull, 72.3 & 4: 2-24, 81.2: 19
Going It Alone: Fargo Grapples with the Great Depression (Danbom) review of, 74:1 & 2: 44-
“Going to the Source,” 69.2, 3, & 4: 81-82
Gold Rush: The Black Hills Story (McDermott, comp., ed.), review of, 71.1 & 2: 73-75
Golden Rule Stores, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
A Good and Wise Measure: The Search for the Canadian-American Boundary, 1783-1842 (Carroll), review of, 70.2: 33
Good Roads Movement, 67.1: 23-45
Goble, Paul, review of, 78:1 & 2, 37-43
Goodhouse, Dakota (Tuŋwéya Tȟokáheya) review by, 78:3 & 4, 35-40, 80:1, 34-36
Governor’s residence, and Governor Guy family, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; history of, 70.1: 26-27; and
Allen Olson family, 74:1 & 2: 2-35; and George Sinner Family, 75:3 & 4: 2-53
Governor–office of in N. Dak., 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46;74:1 & 2: 44-55; 75:3 & 4: 2-53
Grafton, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Graham, Charles “Shorty”–illustrator, watercolor of badlands by, 70.3: front cover
Grand Forks (Metropolitan) Opera House, 67.1: 10-22
Grand Forks, N. Dak., in the 1880s, 66.3 & 4: 17-30; Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22; and the flood of 1997, 82.1: 18-34
Grant, Frederick–son of president, and Yellowstone Surveying Expedition of 1873, 70.3: 2-18
Grant, Michael Johnson, review of, 73.3 & 4: 34
Grant, Ulysses, president of the U.S., and Gall, 74:3 & 4:17-27
Grass Dance of the Spirit Lake Dakota (Garcia with Diedrich), review of, 81.1: 36
Gratton, Marjorie Neuens, and the North Dakota badlands, 80.2: 3-15
Gratton, Weldon, and the Civilian Conservation Corps, 80.2: 3-15; and the National Park Service, 80.2: 3-15; and landscape design in the North Dakota badlands, 80.2: 3-15
Grave Secrets of Dinosaurs: Soft Tissues and Hard Science, review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Great Depression, and the Oscar Will company, 76:1 & 2, 2-25; and Albert F. Yeager, 76:1 & 2, 34-45, and Nursery Schools, 76:3 & 4, 2-15; and J.C. Penney, 77:3 & 4, 2-22; and hunting, 78:1 & 2, 2-22
Great Northern Railroad, and establishment of Trenton, N. Dak., 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79; and Fort
Buford, 69.2, 3, & 4: 34-49
The Great Plains during World War II (Hurt), review of, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
A Great Plains Reader (Quantic and Hafen, eds.), review of, 72.1 & 2: 59
Great Sioux Agreement of 1889, and Sitting Bull, 72.3 & 4: 2-21
Great Sioux Reservation, and buffalo hunting, 71.3 & 4: 2-18
Great Sioux War Orders: How the United States Army Waged War on the Northern Plains, 1876-1877, review of, 77:3 & 4, 40
Great Wildlife of the Great Plains (Johnsgard), review of, 72.1 & 2: 60
Green, Charles, pictograph of Chippewa buffalo hunt by, 71.3 & 4: 27-30
Green, Jerry, review by, 66.2: 38-39
Greene, Julie, ed., review of, 66.2: 40
Greet the Dawn: The Lakota Way, review of, 78:3 & 4, 35-40
Gress, Bob, review of, 72.1 & 2: 60
Grijalva, James M, review by, 67.3: 38
Grinder’s Inn (Natchez Trace, Tenn.)–site of Meriwether Lewis’s suicide, 72.3 & 4: 38-57
Gronna, Asle J.-U.S. senator, 68.3: 2-13
Gross, Stephen, review by, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
Growing Up with the Town: Family and Community on the Great Plains (Schwieder), review of,
71.3 & 4: 51
Grygiel, Carolyn E., review by, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
Guadalcanal, battle of, 66.1: 2-15, 66.2: 23-35
“Guardian of the Land: Arthur A. Link,” 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Guice, John D.W., review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Gulliford, Andrew, review of, 70.2: 33
Gunlogson, G. B., and Icelandic State Park, 80.2: 26-28
Gunlogson Nature Preserve, 80.2: 31-34
Gutensohn, Linda, review by, 78:3 & 4, 35-40
Guy, James–brother of governor, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Guy, Jean Mason–first lady, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and Lyndon Johnson, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and Kennedy Memorial Center, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and life in new governor’s residence, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and North Dakota Agricultural College, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; girlhood, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; marriage to William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Guy, William, Sr.–father of governor, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Guy, William–governor, 67.4: 20-35, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and Quentin Burdick, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; bust
of, 74:1 & 2: 44-55; and state constitutional convention, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and Garrison Diversion, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and governmental reorganization, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and growth of Democratic-Nonpartisan League party, 71.1 & 2: 2-49, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Hubert Humphrey, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and Lyndon Johnson, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and John F. Kennedy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and Art Link, 71.1 & 2: 2-49, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Robert McCarney, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and media, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and North Dakota Agricultural College, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and North Dakota Community Foundation, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and personal property tax, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and Vietnam War, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and Milton Young, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; as chair of National Governors’ Conference, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; as governor, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; as naval officer in WWII, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; as state legislator, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; boyhood, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; marriage to Jean Mason, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; political campaigns of, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; statue of, 74:1 & 2: 44-55; and Kennedy assassination, 78:3 & 4, 19-20
Gwaltney, William W., review by, 66.3 & 4: 61
Gwin, Lyle, article by, 70.4: 32-36

Hackemer, Kurt, review by, 71.3 & 4: 45
Hafen, P. Jane, ed., review of, 72.1 & 2: 59
Hafermehl, Louis N., articles by, 69.1: 2-17, 81.2: 3-26; review by, 68.1: 39
Hagen, Bruce–public service commissioner, and William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Hagen, Geraldine Wisehart–widow of WWII MIA, 72.3 & 4: 25-37
Hagen, James–WWII airman, MIA, 66.1: 2-15, 72.3 & 4: 25-37
Hagen, John–WWII soldier/airman, articles by, 66.1: 2-15, 66.2: 23-35; as brother of MIA, 72.3 & 4: 25-37; war experiences of, 66.1: 2-15, 66.2: 23-35, 72.3 & 4: 25-37
Hagen, Olaf–physician, 66.1: 2-15, 72.3 & 4: 25-37; as candidate for U.S. Senate, 72.3 & 4: 25-
37; as father of WWII MIA, 72.3 & 4; political views of, 72.3 & 4: 25-37
Hakkon VII, King of Norway, and Lincoln bust gift from North Dakota, 74:3 & 4:28-44
Halcrow, Don, and 1964 gubernatorial campaign versus William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Hall, Charles Lemon-missionary, and Independence Congregational Church, 82.1:3-17
Hall, Kari A., review by, 82.1: 38
Hamilton, William T., review of, 80.2: 51-52
Hampsten, Elizabeth, review by, 72.1 & 2: 62
Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, history of, 68.2: 2-23, 68.3: 20-42; Standing Rock students at, 68.2: 2-23, 68.3: 20-42
Handy, Carolyn, review by, 68.1: 38
Handy-Marchello, Barbara, articles by, 75:1 & 2: 26-42, 76:1 & 2, 34-45, and 79:1, 4-12; review of, 74:1 & 2: 44-55; review by, 77:1 & 2, 40-46;
Hanna, Louis B.–governor, 67.3: 2-23; and Mexican Border Campaign of 1916-1917, 71.1 & 2: 50-64; and Norwegian Centennial, 74:3 & 4:28-44; and Republican politics, 74:3 & 4:28-44; and Lincoln Statue, 74:3 & 4:28-44; and 50th Anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg reunion, 74:3 & 4:28-44; and Norway Tour, 74:3 & 4:28-44
Hans, Birgit, review by,75:1 & 2: 26-42; article by, 77:3 & 4, 23-39
Hansen, Karen V., review of, 81.3: 35-36
Hanson, James R., review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Hanson, Silas S.–buffalo hunter, and James McLaughlin, 71.3 & 4: 2-18
Harding, Warren G.–president, and Frank White, 68.3: 2-13
Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, and views of the Red River Valley, 71.3 & 4: 31-42
Harper’s Weekly, and bison hunting, 71.3 & 4: 2-18
“Harry Lashkowitz: FDR’s North Dakota Champion,” 80:1, 3-13
“‘Harvest of Death in North Dakota’: The Political Economy of Coal, Railroads, and Weather in Early Progressive North Dakota,” 80.4: 14-30
Harvest of Dissent: The National Farmers Union and the Early Cold War (Field), review of, 67.1: 37
Harvey, Gretchen, review by, 67.4: 39
Harvey, Mark, article by, 69.2, 3, & 4: 34-49; reviews by, 67.1: 36, 68.2: 38, 78:1 & 2, 37-43
Harvey, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Hassrick, Peter H., review of, 68.2: 38
The Haymakers: A Chronicle of Five Farm Families (Hoffbeck), review of, 68.2: 39
Haymond, John A., review of, 82.1: 39
Hazen, William B.–colonel, commander at Fort Buford, 69.2, 3, & 4: 34-49
“‘He Was a Man, Worthy of Respect’: Gender, Matrimony, and Moral Entitlement in Fargo,  
North Dakota, during the Great Depression,” 70.2: 2-21
Health of the Seventh Cavalry: A Medical History (Willey and Scott), review of, 81.1: 35-36
Hebron, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Hedren, Paul L., review of, 77:3 & 4, 40; 78:3 & 4, 35-40; 82.2: 37-40
Heidenreich-Barber, Virginia, review by, 67.1: 38
Hein, Hilde S., review of, 70.1: 40
Heitkamp, Heidi – tax commissioner, and Gov. Sinner, 75:3 & 4: 2-53
Hell Creek Delta, in prehistoric N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 16-24; fossils from, 73.1 & 2: 16-24
Helm, Merry M., review of, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Helper, Mary Ann – quilter, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
Helstern, Linda, review by, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
Henning, Darrell,review by,75:1 & 2: 26-42
Henning, Dale, review by, 77:3 & 4, 40
Henry Hastings Sibley: Divided Heart, review of, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
Henry, Alexander the Elder–fur trader, and North West Company, 71.3 & 4: 31-42
Henry, Alexander the Younger–fur trader, and North West Company, 71.3 & 4: 31-42; in North
Dakota, 71.3 & 4: 31-42; journal of, 71.3 & 4: 31-42; Red River Valley landscape observed by, 71.3 & 4: 31-42; wildlife observed by, 71.3 & 4: 31-42
Her Holy Door–mother of Sitting Bull, photographs of, 72.3 & 4: 2-21
Hettinger, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Hidatsa agriculture, and George Will, 76:1 & 2, 2-25
Hidatsa villages, and Lewis and Clark Expedition, 70.4: 2-10; and Independence Congregational Church, 82.1: 3-17
Higham, C. L., review of, 68.4: 39; Higham, Carol L. and Thacker, Robert,  eds., review of, 73.3
& 4: 42
Higheagle, Robert Placidus–Hampton student, 68.3: 20-42
Higher education, in D. T., 66.3 & 4: 17-30
Hill, Clint---US Secret Service agent, and Jacqueline Kennedy, 78:3 & 4, 22-34; and John F. Kennedy, 78:3 & 4, 22-34; and the JFK assassination, 78:3 & 4, 22-34
Hill, James J.–president of Great Northern Railroad, photo of, 69.1: inside cover
Hill, Pamela Smith, review of (ed.), 80.2: 51
Hillsboro, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Historic preservation, at University of N. Dak., 69.1: 2-17
Historic sites, acquisition and development of, 68.4: 2-25
Historical Data Project, 68.4: 2-25
The History of the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation, 1600–2012 (Miller, Smith, McGeshick, Shanley, and Shields), review of, 80.3: 32
History of the Norwegian Settlements: A Translated and Expanded Version of the 1908 De
Norske Settlementers Historie and the 1930 Den Siste Folkevandring Sagastubber fra Nybyggerlivet I Amerika, review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
History, as a discipline, 68.4: 2-25
Hjelle, Walter–highway commissioner, and William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and Arthur Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Hoffbeck, Steven R., review of, 68.2: 39
Hoffschwelle, Mary S., review by, 70.2: 35
Hofsommer, Don L., review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56, 76:3 & 4
Hoganson, John W., article by, 73.1 & 2: 2-60; review of, 71.3 & 4: 44; review by, 74:3 & 4:45- 
Hogue, Michel, review of, 81.1: 34
Hoheisel, Tim, review by, 69.1: 34, 77.1 & 2: 40-46
Hoig, Stan, review of, 74.3 & 4: 45-56
Holand, Hjalmer Rued, review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Holding Eagle, James -- Mandan/Hidatsa son of Scattered Corn, and George Will, 76:1 & 2, 2-25
Holien, Reid, review of, 68.1: 39
Hollabaugh, Mark, review of, 82.2: 37-40
Holland, Erik, review by, 74.1 & 2: 44-55, 76.1 & 2: 46-54, 76.3 & 4: 41-48, 80.4: 35-36, 81.4:35
Holmberg, James J., review of, 72.1 & 2: 56
Holmboe, Frithjof–filmmaker, 71.1 & 2: 50-64
Holt, Marilyn Irvin, reviews of, 70.3: 36, 72.1 & 2: 61
Homesteading, and Margrethe Fjelde, 74:3 & 4:28-44
Honorable Warrior: General Harold K. Johnson and the Ethics of Command (Sorley), review
of, 66.1: 38
Hoover, Herbert Clark–US president, and 1928 election, 81.1: 16-31
Hoover, Herbert T., reviews by, 70.1: 38, 73.3 & 4: 39, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
The Horizontal World: Growing Up Wild in the Middle of Nowhere, review of, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
Hornbacher, Perry, review by, 81.2: 29
Horse, fossils of, 73.1 & 2: 37-55; impact on Native Americans, 69.2, 3, & 4: 2-23;in prehistoric N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 37-55
Horsepower and Horse Tracks: The Fargo Auto Races of 1915,” 74:1 & 2: 36-43.
Hudson, Lois Phillips, review by, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
Hudson, Marilyn C., review by, 76:1 & 2, 46-54
Hudson’s Bay Company, and Lewis and Clark Expedition, 70.4: 2-10
Hugh Glass: Grizzly Survivor (McLaird), review of, 82.1: 37-38
Hultgren, Mary Lou, article by, 68.3: 20-42
Humor, of German-Russians, 66.3 & 4: 51-60
Hunkpapa Lakota–history and culture of, 66.3 & 4: 3-16; 74:3 & 4:17-27.  See also Sioux.
Hunt, William J. (Bill), Jr., review by, 74.3 & 4: 45-56, 81.1: 34
Hunt, David C., review by, 68.3: 43
Hunter, George–explorer, 70.2: 22-30
Hunting in North Dakota, 78:1 & 2, 2-22
Hurt, R. Douglas, review of, 76:1 & 2, 46-54, 78:1 & 2, 37-43
Hutchins, James S., ed., review of, 70.2: 31

I Paid All My Debts: A Norwegian-American Immigrant Saga of Life on the Prairie of North Dakota,  review of, 76:3 & 4, 41-48
 “‘I Shall Love the Land’: The Art of Clell Gannon,” 76:1 & 2, 26-33
Ice Age (Pleistocene Epoch), in N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 48-55; fossils from, 73.1 & 2: 48-55
“Icelandic State Park Stands as a Model for Community Involvement,” 80.2: 26-28
The Identities of Marie Rose Delorme Smith: Portrait of a Métis Woman 1861-1960, review of, 78:1 & 2, 37-43
Iles, Derric L., review by, 71.3 & 4: 44
“Images of World War II,” 72.1 & 2: 29-36
Immanuel Evangelical Lutheran Church (Bremen) Cemetery, 82.2: 20-34
Immigrant Minds, American Identities: Making the United States Home, 1870-1930 (Overland), review of, 68.2: 39
Immigrant Mothers: Narratives of Race and Maternity, 1890-1925 (Irving), review of, 68.1: 38
Immigration, to North Dakota, 67.2: 2-15
Important Voices: North Dakota’s Women Elected State Officials Share Their Stories 1893-2013 (Wefald), review of, 80.4: 34-35
In the Mood for Munsingwear: Minnesota’s Claim to Underwear Fame, review of,78:3 & 4, 35-       40
In the Shadow of Wounded Knee: The Untold Final Story of the Indian Wars, review of, 74:1 & 2: 44-55
 “The Incorporation of America: The Northern Pacific, the Lake Superior and Puget Sound Company, and the Founding of Fargo-Moorhead,” 68.4: 26-38
Inculpatory Evidence: A Reexamination of the High Plains Smallpox Epidemic of 1837 with an Emphasis on the Mandan, review of,76:1 & 2, 46-54
"Independence beneath the Surface: A Historic Mission Church and the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation," 82.1: 3-17
Independence Congregational Church, founding and relocation, 82.1: 3-17
Independent Voters Association and the senatorial election of 1920, 68.3: 2-13
Independent Voters of America (see Independent Voters Association), and Usher Burdick, 67.3: 2-23
Indian boarding schools, assimilationist philosophy of, 68.2: 2-23, 68.3: 20-42; at Hampton, 68.2: 2-23, 68.3: 20-42; Standing Rock students at, 68.2: 2-23, 68.3: 20-42
Indian Country, evolving definition of, 71.3 & 4: 2-18
Indian life, as observed by de Trobriand, 73.3 & 4: 2-31
Indian Orphanages (Holt), review of, 70.3: 36
Indian policies, and fur trade, 70.2: 22-30; and land allotment, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79; and Thomas Jefferson, 70.2: 22-30; and Turtle Mountain Ojibwas and Métis, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79
Indian Reorganization Act, and Turtle Mountain Ojibwas and Métis, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79
Indians and Emigrants: Encounters on the Overland Trails, review of, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
The Indianization of Lewis and Clark, review of, 80:1, 34-36
The Infamous Dakota War Trials of 1862: Revenge, Military Law and the Judgment of History (Haymond), review of, 82.1: 39
Ingersoll, Thomas N., review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Inkpaduta–The Scarlet Point: Terror of the Dakota Frontier and Secret Hero of the Sioux (Van Nuys), review of, 72.1 & 2: 62
Innis, Ben–local historian, 69.2, 3, & 4: 60-61
Institutions, establishment of in D. T., 66.3 & 4: 17-30
Insurgent Democracy: The Nonpartisan League in North American Politics (Lansing), review of, 81.2: 29
International Motor Contest Association (IMCA), 74.1 & 2: 2-35
"The Intersection of Faith and Family: Three Rural North Dakota Cemeteries," 82.2: 20-34
Introduction to the Remele Fellowships” 66.3 & 4: 2
Invisible and Inaudible in Washington: American Policies Towards Canada (Mahant and Mount), 68.1: 38
Irving, Katrina, review of, 68.1: 38
Irwin, Robert, review by, 67.4: 36
Iseminger, Gordon L., articles by, 68.4: 26-38, 80.3: 3-28, 82.2: 3-18 (reprint); review by, 66.3 & 4: 64
Isern, Thomas D., articles by, 66.1: 16-20, 67.1: 2-9; review of, 69.1: 35
“‘It Was Easy to Get Involved’: An Interview with Governor John E. Davis,” 70.1: 2-25
Izaak Walton League, 78:1 & 2, 2-22


Jackson, Brenda K., review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Jackson, Donald, review of, 71.1 & 2: 78-79
J. C. Penney stores in North Dakota, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Jager, Rebecca K., review of, 81.3: 34
 “James Cash Penney and His North Dakota Stores,” 77:3 & 4, 2-22
 “James Kipp: Upper Missouri River Fur Trader and Missouri Farmer,” 77:1 & 2, 2-35
Jamestown, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Jansen, Robert, article edited by, 75:3 & 4: 2-53
Janus, Stephen–Indian agent, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79
Jay Cooke’s Gamble: The Northern Pacific Railroad, the Sioux, and the Panic of 1873, review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Jeanette Rankin: America’s Conscience (Smith), review of, 71.1 & 2: 79
Jefferson and the Indians: The Tragic Fate of the First Americans (Wallace), review of, 68.3: 43
Jefferson, Thomas—President, and Lewis and Clark Expedition, 70.2: 22-30, 70.4: 2-10, 71.3 & 4: 19-26, 72.3 & 4: 38-57
Jenkinson, Clay S., ed., review of, 70.4: 37, 78:1 & 2, 37-43; review by, 73.3 & 4: 35; article by, 78:3 & 4, 2-18
Jensen, Alfred J.–state insurance commissioner, and William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Jensen, Richard E., ed., review of, 70.2: 31
Jessaume, René–fur trader, interpreter for Lewis and Clark Expedition, 70.4: 2-10
Jim Crow laws, and Senator William Langer, 76:3 & 4, 22-40
“John F. Kennedy and Theodore Roosevelt: Parallels and Common Ground, including North Dakota” 78:3 & 4, 2-18
“John Thomas Evans: An Overlooked Precursor to Lewis and Clark,” 68.2: 27-37
Johnsgard, Paul A., review of, 72.1 & 2: 60; 74:3 & 4:45-56
Johnson, Bonnie Tunnicliff, articles by, 76:1 & 2, 26-33; 76:3 & 4, 16-21; 77:1 & 2, 36-39
Johnson, Christopher L., review by, 77:1 & 2, 40-46; 79:1, 35-36
Johnson, Demcey, review by, 68.1: 37
Johnson, Harold K.–Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army, 66.1: 38 and back cover
Johnson, Jeffrey A., review by, 73.3 & 4: 37
Johnson, Margaret–mother of Grace Johnson Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Johnson, Roy–father of Grace Johnson Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Johnson, Tim, ed., review of, 67.1: 38
Jondahl, Kimberly, review of, 76:3 & 4, 41-48; article by, 78:3 & 4, 22-34
Jones, A.F., and Ganje, L.A., review of, 79:1, 35-36
Jones, David C., review of, 71.3 & 4: 49
Journal of a Mountaineer (Hamilton), review of, 80.2: 51-52
The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition. Vol. 13, Comprehensive Index (Moulton, ed.), review of, 71.1 & 2: 73
Julin, Suzanne Barta, review of, 76:3 & 4, 41-48
Jungroth, James–attorney/state Democratic chairman, and 1974 campaign versus William Guy,     71.1 & 2: 2-49
Jury, Jan Daley, review by, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Jusseaume’s Post, 68.2: 27-37

Kammen, Carol, ed., review of, 69.1: 34
Kane, Thomas F.-president of University of North Dakota, 68.4: 2-25
Kane, Randy, review by, 82.1: 37
Kapler, Todd M., review by, 70.3: 39
Karch, Dieter, trans., review of, 80.4: 35-36
Karl Bodmer’s North American Prints (Ruud), review of, 73.3 & 4: 34
Kaye, Frances, ed., review of, 66.3 & 4: 64
Keeping Christmas: Yuletide Traditions in Norway and the New Land (Stokker), review of, 70.1: 40
Keillor, Steven, reviews of, 67.2: 39, 71.3 & 4: 44-45
Kelly, Carla, article by, 69.2, 3, & 4: 50-60; review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
Kelly, David–N. Dak. Democratic national committeeman, 71.1 & 2: 2-49
Kelley, Suzanne, review by,75:1 & 2: 26-42
Kelsch, Anne, article by, 71.3 & 4: 31-42; review by, 69.1: 32
Kennedy, Jacqueline---first lady, 78:3 & 4, 2-18, 22-34; and Clint Hill, 78:3 & 4, 22-34; and JFK assassination, 78:3 & 4, 22-34
Kennedy, John F.---president, 78:3 & 4, 2-18, 22-34; in North Dakota, 78:3 & 4, 2-18; assassination, 78:3 & 4, 22-34
Kennedy, Martha H., review of, 70.2: 35
Kennedy, Roger G., review of, 71.3 & 4: 50
Kensington Township, in Walsh County, 66.1: 21-37
Keogh, Barney–World War II pilot, 67. 4: 2-19
Keyser, James D., review of, 71.3 & 4: 47
“Kickapoo Oil, Blood Purifiers, and Laxatives: Patent Medicines in One North Dakota Community,” 80.3: 3-28
Kime, Wayne R., review of, 74:3 & 4:45-56
King, Emma---quilter from Fort Yates, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
Kipp, James–fur trader, biography of, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and Fort Clark and Mih-tutta-hang-kusch, 77:1 & 2, 2-35 and 36-39; and building Upper Missouri trading posts, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and artists Carl Bodmer, George Catlin, and Rudolf Kurz, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and Alexander Culbertson and Kenneth McKenzie, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and Prince Maximilian, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and the Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and children Mary Ann, Louise Charlotte, Margart, Samuel, and Joseph, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and wives Mary Bloodgood, Elizabeth Rocheleau, and Sak’wi-ah-ki (Earth Woman), 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and Missouri farm, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and Mato-Tope, 77:1 & 2, 2-35.
Kipp, Joseph—trader, storekeeper, army scout, son of James Kipp and Earth Woman, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and Fort Benton and Browning, Montana, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and Blackfoot reservation, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and visit to Kipp’s Missouri farm, 77:1 & 2, 2-35; and James Willard Schultz, 77:1 & 2, 2-35.
Kipp, Mary (Sak’wi-ah-ki, or Earth Woman)—see Sak’wi-ah-ki.
Kipp, Samuel—son of James Kipp and husband of Mariah Culbertson Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35;

Kenmare, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Klassen, Michael A., review of, 71.3 & 4: 47
Knauer, Christine, article by, 76:3 & 4, 3-15
Knife River Villages, see Mandan villages and Hidatsa villages
Koelling, Jill Marie, review of, 73.3 & 4: 38
Kohl, Martha, review of (editor), 81.4:36
Kopco, Mary A., review of, 77:1 & 2, 40-46
Koupal, Nancy Tystad, review of, 69.1: 33
Kraybill, Donald B., review of, 70.3: 38
Kriegies, 67.4: 2-19
Krill, Rosemary Troy, review of, 70.2: 35
Kruger, David D., article by, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
K-T Boundary Extinction, in prehistoric N. Dak., 73.1 & 2: 25; causes of, 73.1 & 2: 25; impact on life worldwide, 73.1 & 2: 25
Kudelka, Scott R., article by, 80.2: 26-29, 80.2: 42-45
Kugel, Rebecca, review of, 66.2: 36
Kurle, Christian-WWI soldier, 82.2: 3-18 (reprint)
Kurz, Rudolph—artist, and James Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35


L.A. Huffman: Photographer of the American West, review of, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
La Barge, Joseph—steamboat captain, and James Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35
La Verendrye, Sieur de–explorer/fur trader, historical research about, 68.4: 2-25
Labor Histories: Class, Politics, and Working-Class Experiences (Arnesen, Greene, and Laurie), review of, 66.2: 40
LaFollette, Robert–presidential candidate, 66.3 & 4: 31-40
Lahlum, Lori Ann, review by, 70.1: 40, 76.3 & 4: 41-48, 80.2: 51
Lake Souris (glacial lake), 78:1 & 2, 23-36
Lake Superior and Puget Sound Company, 68.4: 26-38, 69.1: 25-28, 70.1: 36
Lakota Culture, World Economy (Pickering), review of, 70.1: 38
Lakota, and objection to the Northern Pacific Railway, 74:3 & 4:17-27; and quilting, 77:3 & 4, 22-39
The Lakotas and the Black Hills: The Struggle for Sacred Ground, review of, 78:1 & 2, 37-43
Lamb, Joe – Bank of North Dakota president, and Gov. Sinner, 75:3 & 4: 2-53
Lamson Cash Conveyer, and J.C. Penney stores, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
“Landscape Change at the Confluence,” 69.2, 3, & 4: 2-23
Langdon, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Langer, William–attorney general/governor/senator, and Usher Burdick, 67.3: 2-23; as U. S. senator, 67.4: 20-35, and NDAC faculty, 76:1 & 2, 34-45; and civil rights, 76:3 & 4, 22-40; and Harry Lashkowitz, 80:1, 3-13;
Lanier, Powless W., and Harry Lashkowitz, 80:1, 3-13
Language, of German-Russians, 66.3 & 4: 51-60
Lanham Act (also known as the Community Facilities Act) of 1941, and the Fargo Nursery School, 76:3 & 4, 2-15
Lansing, Michael J., review of, 81.2: 29
Larimore, N. Dak., and the CCC, 68.3: 14-19
Larpenteur, Charles—fur trader, and James Kipp, 77:1 & 2, 2-35
Larsen, Lawrence H., reviews by, 66.2: 37, 66.3 & 4: 61; review of (and B. J. Cottrell), 77:1 & 2, 40-46
Larson, Richard–lieutenant governor, and gubernatorial campaign versus Arthur Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Larson, Robert, article by, 74:3 & 4: 17-27
Lashkowitz, Harry--lawyer, politician, 80:1, 3-13; and Franklin D. Roosevelt, 80:1, 3-13; and Fargo Jewish community, 80:1, 3-13; and Powless W. Lanier, 80:1, 3-13; and William Langer, 80:1, 3-13; and 1936 Democratic Party Convention, 80:1, 3-13;
Lashkowitz, Herschel–state senator/Fargo mayor, and William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and urban renewal in Fargo, 80:1, 14-27.
Lass, William E., reviews by, 69.1: 31, 70.2: 31, 73.3 & 4: 42; review of, 66.2: 36, 76:3 & 4, 41-48
Late Woodland Societies (Emerson, McElrath, and Fortier), review of, 70.1: 37
Lauck, Jon, reviews by, 67.4: 38, 71.3 & 4: 50; reviews of, 68.1: 37; 77:1 & 2, 40-46
Launius, Roger D.,review by,75:1 & 2: 26-42
Laurie, Bruce, ed., review of, 66.2: 40
Lawton, Henry Ware-major general, and the Philippine-American War, 81.3: 3-15
Leaf fossils, in N. Dak, 73.1 & 2: 16-24, 26-36
Leavelle, Tracy Neal, review by, 71.1 & 2: 77-78
Leaving North Dakota Behind,” 71.3 & 4: 19-26
Ledger Narratives: The Plains Indian Drawings of the Lansburgh Collection at Dartmouth College, review of, 80:1, 34-36
Lee, Alton R., review by, 67.2: 39; review of, 78:3 & 4, 35-40
Leger-Anderson, Ann, review by, 68.1: 38
Legislative Assembly (N. Dak.), and 1960 reapportionment of legislative districts, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; evolution of in 1940s, ‘50s, and ‘60s, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Legislative Council, growth of, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Legislative Research Committee, 74:1 & 2: 2-35
Leighton and Jordan store at Fort Buford, charge account journal from, 69.2, 3, & 4: 105-106
Leighton, Alvin C.–sutler, 69.2, 3, & 4: 105
“The Letters of Elizabeth Bacon Custer,”76:3 & 4, 41-48
Levingston, William, alias of William Avery Rockefeller, 66.1: 21-37
Levine, Beryl – Supreme Court Justice, and Gov. Sinner, 75:3 & 4: 2-53
Levitas, Daniel, review of, 71.1 & 2: 79-80
Lewis and Clark Expedition, and Blackfeet Indians, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; and Chinook Indians, 72.1 & 2: 47-54, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; and encounters with Indians along Missouri River, 70.3: 26-35, 70.4: 2-10, 71.1 & 2: 65-71, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; and Flathead Indians, 72.1 & 2: 47-54; and Indian policy, 70.2: 22-30, 70.3: 26-35, 70.4: 2-10, 71.1 & 2: 65-71, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; Nez Perce Indians, 72.1 & 2: 47-54, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; and observation of landscape, 69.2, 3, & 4: 2-23; and Shoshone Indians, 71.3 & 4: 19-26, 72.1 & 2: 47-54; and Umatilla Indians, 72.1 & 2: 47-54; and U.S. fur trade, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; birds and mammals observed by, 66.2: 2-14, 70.3: 26-35, 71.3 & 4: 19-26; homecoming of, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; ideological underpinnings of, 69.1: 18-24, 70.2: 22-30; illnesses and medicines of, 71.1 & 2: 65-71; in Montana, 71.3 & 4: 19-26; in North Dakota, 67.3: 24-37, 70.4: 2-10, 71.1 & 2: 65-71, 71.3 & 4: 19-26, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; in the Pacific Northwest, 72.1 & 2: 47-54, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; in the Rocky Mountains, 72.1 & 2: 47-54; journals of, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; legacies of, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; mapping done by, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; on the Columbia River, 72.1 & 2: 47-54; payment and expenses of, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; planning of, 70.1: 28-35, 70.2: 22-30; plant and mineral observations of, 67.2: 16-25; precursors to, 68.2: 27-37, 70.1: 28-35; progress from Ohio River to upper Missouri, 70.3: 26-35; recruitment of members for, 70.3: 26-35; return journey of, 72.3 & 4: 38-57;
Lewis and Clark Journal, April 25, 1805, 69.2, 3, & 4: 84-87; publication history of, 69.2, 3, & 4: 83
Lewis, Bonnie Sue, review of, 72.3 & 4: 64
Lewis, Joseph DeSomet–purported son of Meriwether Lewis, 67.3: 24-37
Lewis, Meriwether–explorer, 70.3: 26-35, 70.4: 2-10, 71.1 & 2: 65-71, 71.3 & 4: 19-26, 72.1 & 2: 47-54, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; accidental shooting of, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; and Frederick Bates, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; and depression, 72.1 & 2: 47-54, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; and Indian policy, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; and training for expedition, 70.2: 22-30; as governor of Louisiana Territory, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; contacts with Yankton and Teton Sioux, 67.3: 24-37; decline and suicide of, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; in St. Louis, 72.3 & 4: 38-57; paternity claims on, 67.3: 24-37
Lewis, Miles D., review by, 72.3 & 4: 62
Lewis, Robert W., reviews by, 72.1 & 2: 59; 75:1 & 2: 26-42
Libby, Orin G.-- historian, biography of, 68.4: 2-25
Lidgerwood, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong (Loewen), review of, 69.1: 33
Life of a Soldier on the Western Frontier, review of, 77:1 & 2, 40-46
Life’s Journey—Zuya: Oral Teachings from the Rosebud, review of, 78:3 & 4, 35-40
Like-a-Fishhook Village, artifacts from, inside back cover, 68.2; de Trobriand at, 73.3 & 4: 2-31; sketch of, 73.3 & 4: 2-31; movement to, 77:1 & 2, 36-39

Lincoln memorial busts, and Norway Centennial celebration, 74:3 & 4:28-44; and Paul Fjelde, 74:3 & 4:28-44; and July 4th celebrations, 74:3 & 4:28-44; and copies in Geneseo, IL, Bismarck, Valley City, and Hillsboro, ND, 74:3 & 4:28-44
Lincoln, Abraham -- president of the U.S., and Smith Stimmel, 74:3 & 4:2-5 and 6-16; and the Northern Pacific Railway, 74:3 & 4:17-27; and Western settlement, 74:3 & 4:17-27; Bust of, 74:3 & 4:28-44; Stimmel’s descriptions of, 74:3 & 4:6-16; and stable fire, 74:3 & 4:6-16; and battle at Fort Stevens, 74:3 & 4:6-16; and second inauguration, 74:3 & 4:6-16; assassination, 74:3 & 4:6-16; and portraiture, 75:1 & 2: 24-25; and bust of, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
Linton, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22
Little Fish: Head Chief of the Dakota on the Fort Totten Reservation,  review of, 77:3 & 4, 40
Lisbon, ND, Penney’s store in, 77:3 & 4, 2-22

Lind, Annie C.–colonist, farmer, and mine operator, near Wilton, N. Dak., 67.2: 2-15
Lind, John A.–colonist, farmer, and mine operator, near Wilton, N. Dak., 67.2: 2-15
Lindgren, H. Elaine, article by, 67.2: 2-15; review by, 70.2: 36
Lindner, Markus H., article by, 72.3 & 4: 2-21; review by,75:1 & 2: 26-42
Lindquist, Julie C., review by, 70.3: 36
Link, Anna Mencl–mother of governor, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Link, Arthur A.–governor, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Mark Andrews, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Bismarck State Bank, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Brookwood Labor College, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Norman Brunsdale, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Jimmy Carter, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Democratic-Nonpartisan League party, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and energy development in western N. Dak., 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Farmers Union, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and N. Dak. Centennial Commission, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Allen Olson, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46, 74:1 & 2: 44-55; and George Sinner, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and State Water Commission, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and Earl Strinden, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; as governor, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; as state legislator, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; as U.S. congressman, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; boyhood, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; marriage to Grace Johnson, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; opposition to legalized gambling, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; political campaigns of, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; political philosophy of, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Link, Grace Johnson–first lady, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; and preservation of Former Governors’ Mansion, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; girlhood, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46; marriage to Arthur Link, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Link, John–father of governor, 72.1 & 2: 2-28, 37-46
Lips, Evan–state senator, Bismarck mayor, and William Guy, 71.1 & 2: 2-49; and George Sinner, 75:3 & 4: 2-53
Literary traditions, of the Plains, 67.1: 2-9
The Literature of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Beckham, Erickson, Skinner, and Merchant), review of, 72.3 & 4: 63
Little Bighorn, battle of, Arikara narrative about, 68.4: 2-25; Gall, Custer and, 74:3 & 4:17-27
Little Owl (Sitting Rabbit), pictograph of Mandan corn priests by, 70.4: 2-10; pictograph of Four Bears and Mih-Tutta-Hangkusch by, 70.4: 32-36
Little Shell–Chippewa chiefs, 69.2, 3, & 4: 62-79; and buffalo hunt pictograph by Green, 71.3 & 4: 27-30
Living with Strangers: The Nineteenth-Century Sioux and the Canadian-American Borderlands, review of, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
Lloyd’s Opera House, in Jamestown, 67.1: 10-22
Loendorf, Lawrence L., review by, 71.3 & 4: 47
Loewen, James W., review of, 69.1: 33
Loftus, George, and rise of NPL, 67.3: 2-23
Long Hard Road: American POWs During World War II, review of, 75:1 & 2: 26-42
 “Looking West: American Explorers and Traders before Lewis and Clark,” 70.1: 28-35
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904), photo of, 70.2: inside cover
Louisiana Territory, in the early 1800s, 72.3 & 4: 38-57

fromSouthern Local Color: Stories of Region, Race and Gender

Edited by Barbara C. Ewell and Pamela Glenn Menke, with notes by Andrea Humphrey
Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2002.

NOTE: The following text is the manuscript version of the introduction to our anthology of nineteenth-century southern local color fiction, published by the University of Georgia Press; please cite appropriately.  --Ewell & Menke.

MLA Citation:
Ewell, Barbara C. and Pamela Glenn Menke, eds. "Introduction." Southern Local Color: Stories of Region, Race and Gender. By Ewell and Menke. Athens: U of Georgia P, 2002. xii-lxvi. Online version, July 2004. [Date of Access] <>

In 1870, Bret Harte signed a contract with the Atlantic Monthly for $10,000: literary gold had been discovered in the frontier mining camps of California.The bawdy (but mostly good-hearted), rough-neck gamblers, drunks, and prostitutes of Harte’s stories titillated a northeastern reading public curious about the West, hungry for entertainment, and eager to fashion a national identity from the regional fabrics that the Civil War had nearly rent. Other writers soon followed Harte’s cue, and the tradition of local color, a fashion that captivated the reading public in the 1880s and 1890s, was established.   
    A burgeoning new magazine market encouraged a stream of short fiction portraying unfamiliar customs and ordinary folk and affirming a renewed sense of unity in the nation’s rich diversity.  The country’s distant reaches drew closer in the short stories, travelogues, and sketches of hundreds of writers, including Sarah Orne Jewett, Celia Thaxter, and Mary Wilkins Freeman of New England; Harte and Mark Twain and later Sui Sin Far, Mary Austin and Jack London of the West and desert Southwest; and Edward Eggleston, Octave Thanet, and Hamlin Garland of the Midwestern prairies.  But it was the South whose sectional differences were perceived most acutely and which, for the sake of national unity, most required the country’s imaginative comprehension.  Although stories with New England and Midwestern locales were popular, those with western and especially with southern settings dominated the market in the last two decades of the nineteenth century.  Scribner’s Monthly declared in 1881:  “New England is no longer king.  Her great literary school is dying out . . . .The South and the West are hereafter to be reckoned upon in making up the account of our literary wealth” (Hubbell 724).    
    This anthology offers a representative collection of these nineteenth-century stories set in the southern United States, known both in their own time and in literary history as “local color.” Apart from their intrinsic interest as effective and varied fiction, the precipitous decline of these stories in the next century from extraordinary popularity to a "minor" place in literary history raises provocative questions about literary fashion, about shifting canons of taste and value, about definitions and persistence of genre, and about the cultural purposes literature can serve. As recent scholars have recognized, local color is a far more complex phenomenon than has generally been appreciated.  Moreover, its southern expression is particularly relevant in comprehending the critical role of the South in the cultural development of the United States.  To understand the reformulation of the South and of the nation that southern local color both reflected and engendered is to apprehend more fully the inherently fluid, interdependent, and unsettling cultural identities that comprise American literary expressions and realities.  The following discussion explores some of these questions as it positions southern local color within its contemporary socio-historical and literary contexts, outlines its principal characteristics and forms, and, finally, assesses its shifting significance in literary history.  

Section One: The Precursors

The precursors of American local color and its southern forms appeared during the early nineteenth century as part of a general effort in the 1830s to find specifically “American” literary expressions.  Among the relevant developments of that formative period were the early experiments of Washington Irving and later Nathaniel Hawthorne in writing short prose tales, and the shapely stories of Edgar Allen Poe, collected in 1840 as Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque.  John Pendleton Kennedy inaugurated the plantation literary tradition, while Caroline Hentz became the first to adopt the popular tropes of northern domestic fiction to southern settings.  Within the same decade, Augustus Baldwin Longstreet won acclaim for his irreverently funny Georgia Scenes, and William Gilmore Simms published his romances of Georgia and South Carolina, replete with colorful outlaws, low-class mountaineers, and aristocratic heroes.  A growing abolitionist movement encouraged the first published slave narratives, establishing influential formal models for black fiction.  And, beginning about 1830, minstrel shows sprang up throughout the South, promulgating lively characters and an expressive language that drew heavily on African American oral traditions and proved a fertile resource for much later southern writing.  The ingredients for southern local color were beginning to take shape.

An American Form: The Short Story   
Growing out of the eighteenth-century English sketch, the legends of Washington Irving’s internationally successful Sketch Book published in installments beginning in 1819 are generally acknowledged to have inaugurated the American short story.  Irving transformed older European material, particularly German folk tales, into legends of the “fairy mountain” Catskills and the “drowsy, dreamy” Hudson Valley in “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.”  Even though Irving’s art is much indebted to his European sources, four of his thirty-two Sketch Book entries employed native settings.  Irving’s professed interest in the “familiar and faithful exhibition of senses in common life” and “the half-concealed vein of humor” influenced his contemporaries Kennedy and Longstreet, whose own southern stories echoed Irving's comedy and detailed portraits of local customs and characters (1824 letter, Current-Garcia and Hitchcock 6).  
    Fellow New Englander Nathaniel Hawthorne also drew on Irving’s work.  Frustrated by publishers’ rejections, Hawthorne burned his first collection, Seven Tales of My Native Land, but his fascination with his Puritan past resulted in such stories as “Young Goodman Brown,” eventually collected in Mosses from an Old Manse (1846), and provided the backdrop for other tales and novels, including his classic The Scarlet Letter (1850).  Expanding the dimensions of the short story, Hawthorne was more interested in inner motivations than in the realistic surfaces of character and place, and while his literary canvas is regionally specific, setting serves primarily as an allegorical and symbolic landscape for human struggles with self-truths and evil.
    More than Irving or Hawthorne, Poe was interested in literary form and its production of tightly crafted, sensational effects, as in  “Ligeia” (1838), “The Fall of the House of Usher” (1839), and “The Tell-Tale Heart” (1843).  Reviewing Hawthorne’s Twice-Told Tales, Poe also articulated the first theory of the short story, defining its essential elements as brevity, economy of writing, and a unified arrangement of character, setting, and situations to achieve an intense effect.  Like Hawthorne, Poe found in the short story a perfect medium for what Hawthorne called in his preface to The House of Seven Gables (1851) the “marvelous” rather than the “probable and ordinary.”
    Though both writers perceived the novelty of the form, Poe also understood its dependence on the emergence in the 1840s of a new literary market: the magazine.  Beginning in 1830 with Godey’s Lady’s Book, these popular new monthlies were the successors of “annuals” or “gift-books,” which had provided both Irving and Hawthorne with publishing venues for their short prose tales.  The monthly magazines, often directed at female readers, generated a profitable market for short fiction and thereby established a symbiosis that would define the evolution of the genre in the United States. As Poe himself declared, the short story was the child of the American magazine.

Agrarian Idylls, Domestic Heroines and Southwest Humor
While southern writers adapted similar aesthetics of sensation and sentiment in their fiction, they drew on material quite different from Irving’s or Hawthorne’s. In Swallow Barn; or a Sojourn in the Old Dominion (1832), for example, John Pendleton Kennedy fashioned his “romance” from a detailed portrayal of the Tidewater countryside, a distinguished Virginian ancestry, and a white planter hierarchy enfranchised by happily devoted slaves. Swallow Barn’s central character, Frank Meriwether, is “a thorough-bred Virginian” who “emphatically” considers Richmond “as the centre of civilization."  Revered by his many slaves, who are “very happy under his dominion," Meriwether has little regard for merchants or for cities, whose inhabitants he believes are “hollow hearted and insincere, and altogether wanting in that substantial intelligence and honesty” of landed aristocracy.  Anticipating a key strategy of later local colorists, Kennedy presented his narrator as a visiting New Yorker, possibly modeled on Irving, Kennedy’s friend and a frequent visitor, but also emulating popular travel books about the South, including New York native James Kirke Paulding’s Letters from the South (1817).  The reports of Swallow Barn are sprinkled with the lively humor and realistic detail favored by readers, and Kennedy’s portrait of the James River plantation and its denizens contained all the elements of the Old South myth later embraced by postbellum plantation apologists and many southern local colorists.  
    But Kennedy’s plantation formula was most successfully adopted by the women writers who grafted its elements onto another popular form, the domestic novel.  Introduced in 1822 by Catharine Sedgewick, the domestic or sentimental novel generated considerable fortunes for many northern women writers, including Fanny Fern, E.D.E.N. Southworth, Susan Warner and Harriet Beecher Stowe. Incorporating elaborate descriptions of ordinary life, its plots focused on an ideally virtuous woman, whose tribulations revealed the possibilities for heroism in the domestic contexts to which most white women were confined. Southern writers like Caroline Hentz, Caroline Gilman, and Maria McIntosh, followed by a generation of younger writers, including Mary Virginia Terhune (Marion Harland) and Augusta Evans, recentered the plantation narrative on the aristocratic mistress instead of its master, creating, as Elizabeth Moss argues, a distinctively feminine fictional agenda (22).  Thus while the southern domestic novelists, like their male contemporaries, incorporated gradually more explicit defenses of slavery, they did so in terms of the southern female aristocrat’s responsibility for keeping the family structure intact--and thus saving the South.
    The astonishing popularity of the southern domestic novel on both sides of the Mason-Dixon line (Evans claimed that her works sold nearly half million copies [Moss 3]) attests to the power of its argument. But it was a northerner who ultimately marshaled its elements most effectively: Harriet Beecher Stowe’s devastating attack on slavery, Uncle Tom’s Cabin; or, Life among the Lowly (1852). Southern novelists, male and female, launched a barrage of fictional responses to Stowe, but only actual war settled the matter. Nonetheless, southern domestic fiction and its plantation kin firmly established the elements of planter life in the national imagination, both north and south. It also set its dominant tone:  Augusta Evans’ 1864 novel, Macaria, or Altars of Sacrifice, was already a panegyric to a lost cause (Moss 169), while Kennedy, who had revised and reissued Swallow Barn the year before, waxed nostalgic in his new introduction, recalling the mellow, bland, and sunny luxuriance” of Virginia’s “old-time society.”  Two decades after the war, this fantasy South would rise again from the pens of Page and other southern writers in another popular genre, local color.
    Alongside plantation fiction and the literary innovations of Hawthorne and Poe, another mode also flourished in the South from the 1830s to the 1860s, frontier humor.  It was labeled “Southwest” because the southern territories were largely “southwest” of the more settled eastern seaboard.  When Bret struck the literary gold fields of local color in the 1870s, the territory was not unfamiliar.  Longstreet and his successors (including Mark Twain in tall tales like “The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” [1865]), created high comedy out of the narrative distance between genteel narrators (and readers) and the raw, “natural” common folk, whose starkly different life and customs were being recounted.  The Southwest humorists exploited a wide variety of southern settings: Georgia (William Tappan Thompson, Major Jones’s Courtship, 1843); Alabama (Johnson Jones Hooper, Some Adventures of Captain Simon Suggs, 1846); Louisiana (Thomas Bangs Thorpe, The Big Bear of Arkansas, 1841; Henry Clay Lewis, Odd Leaves from the Life of a Louisiana “Swamp Doctor,” 1858; and Tennessee (George Washington Harris, Sut Lovingood Yarns, 1867).  The genre’s characteristic misspellings, dialect, puns, and sayings were also taken up by northern writers like Maine-born Charles Farrar Browne, whose stage recreation of his semi-literate and provincial persona Artemus Ward would greatly influence Twain.  While the antics of the uneducated, isolated backwoods and mountain folk were often exaggerated in the Southwest sketches, the excess and “oddities” of their communities and landscapes contributed significantly to the later development of southern local color.

William Gilmore Simmes: The Father of Southern Local Color
      The Southwest humorists won the praise of William Gilmore Simms, who, the year he died, even tried his hand at the tall tale in “How Sharp Snaffles Got His Capital and His Wife” (Harper’s Magazine, October 1870).  Read infrequently today, Simms was nationally renowned prior to the Civil War and, like many southern writers, financially dependent on northern presses and audiences.  An ardent champion of southern writing, he also promoted an authentic American literature cut loose from its British and European antecedents.  In 1842, he declared himself “an ultra-American” and a “born Southron."  Plantation owner, slave holder, prolific author, and, above all, southern advocate, Simms anticipated in his historical romances and short fiction many of the tangled ideologies and features of much post-war southern local color, including competing national/regional allegiances, rigid class distinctions, an interest in common folk, and the skillful uses of detail, dialect, and exotic local landscapes.
    Many of Simms’ stories, particularly the “The Lazy Crow; A Story of the Cornfield” and “Caloya; Or, The Loves of the Driver,” collected in The Wigwam and the Cabin (1845), drew on another important resource for later southern fiction: African and Native American folklore, along with titillating hints of interracial relationships.  The unacknowledged fascination of white readers with the “other” cultures of America was already evident in the popularity of works as diverse as Longfellow’s Song of Hiawatha (1855), the minstrel shows, with their adaptations of slave songs and customs, and the politically inspired slave narratives of Frederick Douglass (1845), William Wells Brown (1847), Harriet Jacobs (1861), and many others.  Capitalizing on these interests, Simms’ tales augur many of the most popular tropes of post-war fiction, including plantation benevolence and hijinks, dialect, gender roles delimited by race and class, non-white customs, and allusions to voudou.  In defending his portrayals of mixed-race relationships, Simms insisted that literature must resist polite hypocrisies and depict the natural passions shared by black, red, and white skins alike.  Simms recognized the subtle power of his “local” material and perceptively declared in his preface to the collection's 1856 edition that “[the subject] is local, sectional--and to be national in literature, one needs must be sectional" (4).  The uneasy task of being “national in literature” by being “sectional” became the province of local color in the 1870’s.  Although Simms’ version of an historically and culturally diverse South was marked by aristocratic heroism, class differentials, and nostalgic pastoralism, his vision influenced such ideologically dissimilar southern writers as the plantation apologist Page and the radical reformer Cable.

Section Two: The Crucible of History

But if the various elements of southern local color can be identified before mid-century, the Civil War and its tumultuous aftermath both interrupted the development of southern literature and furnished the historical crucible that molded the substance and form of local color as a distinct genre, one that proved profoundly useful in the post-war reconstruction of national identity. Certainly, the end of the Civil War marked a traumatic moment in the identity both of the South as a region and of the nation as a whole.  Although broadly defined differences between the southern and New England colonies had been present since the earliest seventeenth-century European settlements in North America, climate and geography as well as political, economic, and religious variations had served to sharpen those distinctions over the years. The issue of slavery, which had divided the constitutional conventions, eventually focused these conflicts into a catastrophic, four-year civil war.  The military defeat of the South, marked by General Robert E. Lee’s surrender of the Army of the Confederate States of America at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, confirmed that the southern states would not be a separate nation, but it also solidified their status as a separate region.  The war had consolidated southern white people with very different political and economic interests--upcountry small farmers from North Carolina and Tennessee as well as the owners of vast rice or cotton plantations from Georgia and Louisiana--into a single southern foe.  Similarly, the costs of war and defeat had been spread across social classes and political allegiances.  If the Civil War, as New England social critic Orestes Brownson observed, served to give the United States “a distinct consciousness of its own national existence,” southerners' defeat clarified their awareness that they occupied a distinctly regional space within that nation (Foner 24).

The Promises of Reconstruction Unfulfilled
The abolition of slavery made the most profound differences in southern culture.  Although the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 initially affected only slaves in the confederacy (exempting about a million slaves in border states and Union-occupied areas), by 1865 the status of nearly four million people had been radically changed from chattel to citizen.  One of the freedmen’s first responses to that new status was widespread migration.  Formerly confined to plantations and forbidden to travel without passes, many ex-slaves took to the road for a variety of reasons: to seek out separated family members, to return to familiar places, to pursue better work opportunities, or just to test their new license.  Most freedmen, however, traveled only a few miles, and many ended up in nearby southern towns and cities, where some felt “freedom was free-er” and where black populations often doubled after the war.
    Emancipation dramatically reconfigured the labor force.  The southern economy was based on agriculture, which had been devastated by the war: crops, farm animals and machinery had been destroyed, savings and capital were depleted, one fifth of the white male population was dead with many more wounded or maimed, and the black labor force now demanded wages and control over its toil.  Freedmen and whites struggled to redefine their relationships within these new contexts. Former slaves demanded respect and proper compensation for their labor while former masters tried to reimpose their own notions of control and market value.  Land owners, facing acute labor shortages, often courted freedmen with promises of good wages and land, but then expressed outrage when the workers, unfairly treated or simply attracted by better offers, abandoned their places.  In the cities, black workers similarly struggled for autonomy and opportunity as the concept of free labor gradually took its tenuous hold in the region.
    Critical to these redefinitions of labor relationships was the larger national project of the reconstruction of the South.  Northern victory brought with it conflicting notions of how to reincorporate the rebellious states back into the Union, with the Radical Republicans urging retaliation upon whites and full civil rights for blacks. An intense political struggle ensued which resulted in the impeachment of President Lincoln’s successor, Andrew Johnson, whose southern sympathies ultimately offended the Republican majority.  Congress soon settled on a relatively progressive path to reshape the relationships between southern blacks and whites.  It readmitted the southern states, established the Freedmen’s Bureaus to assist blacks in the transition from slavery, and passed civil rights legislation, including the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments, which gave black suffrage a Constitutional guarantee.
    Reconstruction formally lasted from 1865 until 1877, when the contested election of Rutherford B. Hayes (in which a Republican victory was basically bartered for the return of white political control in the South) marked the virtual end of federal intervention in southern race relations.  Almost as much as the war itself, Reconstruction helped to redefine southern life. In its earliest and briefly successful period, between 1868 and 1872, Republican policies encouraged a series of political and social reforms in the region, including the establishment of public school systems, hospitals and asylums, protective labor laws, modernized tax codes and judicial systems, and remarkably biracial democratic governments in many states.  However, white resistance to the loss of economic and political supremacy was fierce.  Sporadic violence against blacks gave way to the formation of more organized terrorist groups, like the Ku Klux Klan, founded in Tennessee in 1865, and Louisiana’s Knights of the White Camellia (1867); both groups attempted to control post-war elections by intimidating black and liberal white voters, who often responded with force.  The passage of the national “Enforcement Acts” in 1870-71, which made violence against citizens a federal matter, helped to suppress these vigilante groups by 1872, although their tactics continued as a feature of southern life for many years.  The effort to reshape southern social structures through legislation was not without consequence.
      White resistance was not the only force that disabled the early promise of Reconstruction. There was also widespread political corruption (which, in the era of urban gangs like New York’s notorious Tweed Ring, was hardly a southern phenomenon), a persistent lack of investment capital, and a major economic depression, the Panic of 1873, which shifted national attention away from the problems of the South and swept many Republicans from office.  What had begun as an extension of abolitionist idealism--to end slavery and to integrate black people fully into the American political and economic order--was becoming a distracting liability.  The real accomplishments of Reconstruction began to be viewed, even in the northern press, as failures.  Influential reports on the South sponsored by liberal northern newspapers and journals, such as “The Prostrate State” (1874) written for the New York Tribune or “The Cotton States” (1875) for the New York Herald, reinforced the notion that the general disarray of the South was the result of incompetent “Negro government” and that prosperity could only return with white rule.  That sentiment was enacted across the South in a series of violently won elections by “Redeemers,” conservative white Democrats who wrested control of state and local governments, beginning as early as 1870 in Virginia and North Carolina.  When the Grant administration failed to intervene aggressively to protect the radical regime in Mississippi in the critical elections of 1875, “Reconstruction itself was doomed,” according to Eric Foner, and, with it, any notion that its aspirations marked a positive moment in U. S. history (563).
    What was at stake in Reconstruction was ultimately the concept of white supremacy or, to put it differently, the disempowerment of blacks.  Especially in the final decades before the war, as the contradictions of slavery in a presumably egalitarian nation became more untenable, slavery had been increasingly justified by arguments of racial inferiority, often buttressed by biblical and even anthropological evidence. When the “peculiar institution” was finally dismantled, white southerners clung to white supremacy as a final vestige of the economic and political power to which they were accustomed and which they believed they deserved.   Reconstruction materially threatened that power, and even after its formal demise, white southerners fought strenuously to preserve the racial distinctions that would reinstate their prerogatives.
    The new conservative state governments thus began systematically to undo the toehold of blacks in political and economic affairs.  Ultimately, their aim was disenfranchisement: to make the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments “dead letters on the statute-book.”  To that end, they drastically reduced state budgets and taxes (together with the social services they supported), passed anti-labor laws, and revised the criminal codes and property laws in an undisguised effort to restore power to the old propertied castes and the new mercantile elite.  Gradually recognizing that the federal government would not interfere, southern states began to impose restrictions designed to eliminate black male votes: poll taxes, property requirements, literacy and “understanding” tests, which required that prospective voters interpret a section of the Constitution to the local registrar’s satisfaction, and even the infamous “grandfather clause,” which exempted from any requirements all men and their descendants who could vote before 1867--thus eliminating the former slaves. Many of these restrictions were incorporated into constitutions rewritten in many southern states in the 1890s. The effect of such provisions was not only to eliminate most black voters but also many poor whites, thus ensuring that the white upper classes would retain much of their antebellum economic and political power.

Segregation and Violence: Redefining Race and Gender  
Racial segregation was a critical feature of black disempowerment during this period.  Reconstruction had marked a somewhat fluid period of interaction as blacks and whites tentatively explored their new social and economic relationships. Some public schools in cities like New Orleans and even the University of South Carolina (between 1873-1877) were briefly integrated, while most public transportation and even theaters and taverns were in some areas nominally open to blacks as well as whites. However, when in 1883 the Supreme Court invalidated the 1875 Civil Rights Act, the states began to enact a series of laws requiring “separate but equal” accommodations first in railroads. Upheld by the courts in 1890 and then affirmed in 1896 by the famous Louisiana test case, Plessy v.Ferguson, these laws became collectively known as Jim Crow.  Jim Crow legislation, named for an antebellum minstrel performer, ratified the needs of whites to justify and consolidate their power through caste distinctions, which were then marked by physical and social distance.  Racial difference became identified with racial inferiority; for despite the rhetoric of “separate but equal” (which some black leaders like Booker T. Washington tentatively endorsed), the reality was always separate and decidedly unequal, from railroads to restaurants, from “colored” water fountains to “whites only” hospitals, from schools and bawdy houses to prisons and cemeteries.  By restricting any contact between blacks and whites as equals or peers, segregation enforced an ideology of profound difference; by maintaining that difference as asymmetric, it magnified the desired perception of white superiority.  As Edward Ayers observes, the actual implementation of racial segregation was an uneven process across the region and was driven by a variety of forces; however, by the turn of the century when the word “segregation” actually entered the language, it was firmly in place throughout the South.  It remained entrenched until after World War II and the emergence of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s (Ayers 145).  
    Violence, essential in maintaining slavery, was a necessary corollary to segregation’s blatant injustice; blacks did not always submit peacefully to the revocation of their freedoms.  Black resistance was evident in lawsuits, boycotts, and riots, among them the 1898 Wilmington, North Carolina, race riots on which Charles Chesnutt based his 1901 novel, The Marrow of Tradition.  Federal protections for freedmen were gradually withdrawn, first in the presence of the military, then in the courts, and, by the 1890s, even in the sympathies of the northern public.  As a result, whites became increasingly able to suppress black resistance through violent means. Lynchings proliferated in the 1880s: between 1882 and 1900, over eleven hundred thousand black men (and at least a score of black women) were executed by white mobs in the South, often after cruel torture (Tolnay and Beck 271).  The most common targets were “uppity” blacks, those who had presumed to challenge white rule or had perhaps achieved a modicum of financial success.  The most widely-held justification for lynching was the crime of raping a white woman, the most scandalous instance of unwanted physical contact across the barriers of race.
    The insistence that rape was the reason for lynching revealed a critical nexus in the South between race and gender.  Indeed, as Ayers points out, the more intimate the space, the more stringent the rules of segregation.  Memphis journalist Ida B. Wells, who began a courageous anti-lynching campaign in the 1890s, was the first to document the fact that only about one-third of lynchings even involved an actual charge of rape (207).  Nonetheless, as in Paul Laurence Dunbar’s story “The Lynching of Jube Benson” (1902), the protection of white womanhood from the vicious sexual attacks of black men remained the mantra of lynch-law.  As one proponent succinctly put it, lynching was “the white woman’s guarantee against rape by niggers” (Wilson 175). In fact, the status of the white woman was closely tied to the status of blacks in general and to black men in particular. The traditional superiority of southern white men depended on the subservience of both white women and blacks. Transferred onto black men, the threat of male sexual violence helped to contain white women, while the defense of female honor justified the brutal punishment of black men. Black women, as the embodiment of a female sexuality impermissible to white women, remained equally vulnerable to rape and to retribution.
    Central to these inter-relationships was the figure of the white southern belle: the beautiful, charming, genteel and submissive mistress of the patriarchal southern household. A familiar ideal in antebellum literature and society, the aristocratic white woman anchored southern conceptions of domestic and social order.  For, as Lee Ann Whites and others have demonstrated, gender roles in the South were not, as in the North, shaped by the notion of “separate spheres,” in which men governed the public realms of money and politics while women occupied and controlled the private domestic spaces. Instead, southern conceptions of gender depended on “economically autonomous” households in which men provided material support in return for female dependence and submission (Whites 10).  The willing--and thus “natural”--subservience of the southern woman mirrored and contained the unwilling, if equally ordained, compliance of the black slaves, who were also part of the exemplary southern household. As Marjorie Spruill Wheeler points out, “the war and Reconstruction initiated a series of social and economic changes that gradually altered Southern gender relations,” but those changes strengthened rather than severed the connections between race and gender that those relations implied (New Women 9).
    Although the Civil War reshaped gender in both the North and the South, military defeat and the wholesale loss of property and slaves gave many returning Confederate soldiers an especially acute sense of their failure as men (Edwards 113).  The only remaining component of the patriarchal household that had defined southern male identity was its loyal women. In contrast, for white women, the war and its difficult aftermath had provided a new sense of empowerment, as they managed struggling businesses and failing plantations (as did southern author Kate Chopin) and assumed greater public roles in the war effort.  Both men and women struggled after the war to regain some semblance of their prewar gender identity, and both found it in the magnification of the role of women. For white men, particularly in the upper-classes, the loyalty and submission of women were the sole remnants of their maleness constructed as “head of household.” For white women, more complexly, that same loyal support was the principal way that they could reconstruct their devastated men as providers (if they had returned at all) and, in so doing, could also continue some sense of their wartime empowerment “as the ‘makers’ of their men” (Whites 13).  
    Of course, for black men and women, as for many lower-class whites, the reshaping of gender roles unfolded differently.  Freedom enabled blacks to construct their roles along the model of the patriarchal family, an opportunity expressly denied them during slavery.  For black men, the war and military service became an important route for claiming a manhood that slavery had denied.  After the war, the control of their own labor, as well as their wives', enabled them to act as providers.  Their vehement resistance to gang labor, with its overtones of slavery, became a point of critical contention in the Reconstruction labor market.  Emancipation enabled black women to insist on their own domestic importance and to return their allegiance, as well as their labor, to their husbands and families.  Particularly in the years of Reconstruction, their adamant refusal to work in the fields under the authority of other men became a central symbol of their new status as women. Later, as sharecropping replaced wage labor among freedmen, women’s fieldwork was seen as properly contributing to the family rather than as demeaning (J. Jones 58-59).
    Another important aspect of shifting gender roles was the national movement for female suffrage.  Before the war, the links between abolitionism and woman’s suffrage had discouraged much public support for women’s rights in the South.  However, after a number of black men moved into public office and exercised their electoral privileges during Reconstruction, many white women began to find the subject more compelling.  As Wheeler notes, the “Negro problem” (understood as the enfranchisement of several million people considered by many southern whites as “unfit for political participation”) did not cause white women to want the vote so much as it gave them “a reason to suspect that they could win it” (“Woman Suffrage” 38, 39).  The formation of new constitutional conventions throughout the South provided an early venue for the enlargement of women’s political rights.  Arkansas, North Carolina, and Texas considered including woman’s suffrage in their 1868 conventions, and the matter came up again when the conservative white “redeemers” rewrote constitutions in the 1870s (Green 6-7).  
    Following these debates, equal suffrage organizations began to develop sporadically in most southern states, along with women’s clubs, which were a principal source of female self-education throughout the nation.  These groups, which included many upper-class white women (such as author and activist Sarah Barnwell Elliot), began to lobby state legislatures on a variety of issues and achieved some modest success, including admission to colleges and professional schools, service on government commissions and boards, and reforms of inheritance and custody laws.  However, as southern women faced repeated defeats on such important issues as child labor, many began to recognize the limits of their traditional feminine role as “moral suasor.” Despite the self-proclaimed chivalry of southern politicians in assuming the burden of politics, many southern white women became less convinced that their protection and that of children weighed very heavily at all against the financial interests of the cotton mill owners and railroad barons (Wheeler “Woman Suffrage” 34-35).  Finally in the 1890s, partly in response to the newly reorganized National Women’s Suffrage Association, which appreciated the potential and need for southern support, the South saw its first organized effort for woman’s suffrage.
    But just as the “Negro problem” had precipitated many white southern women into the struggle for suffrage, the “race issue” circumscribed their efforts.  White women, no less than white men, recognized in white supremacy and black disenfranchisement the underpinnings of their own political and economic dominance and security.  As Elna Green writes of southern anti-suffragists, they “saw the world as an integrated whole: class, gender and race relations were set in a permanent configuration, each mutually enforcing the others ... a blow to any part of the edifice endangered the integrity of the entire structure” (90-91).  One consequence of this perception was the racial/racist strategies that southern white women, together with their complicitous northern sisters, employed on behalf of suffrage. In the 1880s and 1890s, for example, it was argued that extending the vote to women would help to dilute black electoral strength, especially since white women outnumbered black women.  Similarly, many white leaders, like Kate Gordon of Louisiana, insisted on seeking suffrage from the states; they feared that a federal mandate would weaken the ability of states to maintain “control” over its black citizens.  However, when Mississippi’s Jim Crow laws were upheld by the Supreme Court in Williams v. Mississippi (1898), it became clear that the federal government would not intervene in the erosion of black civil rights nor in the steady drift toward legalized segregation.  As a result, woman’s suffrage lost any serious support in white legislatures.  Instead, the links between white women’s empowerment and black advancement became all the more decisive. For just as white women had seen in black suffrage an opportunity to secure their own enfranchisement, the southern hierarchy had just as accurately perceived in female autonomy an alarming threat to the postwar redefinitions of southern manhood, which sought to remain still white and still master, at least over its women.
    If southern female suffrage was thus crippled by such mixed allegiances, white women became a vital (and often willing) tool in the consolidation of white supremacy.  Women’s loyal submission to white men thus served as a central prop to the renewed southern patriarchy.  Protecting her status became a paramount expression of manliness. The principal menace to this regime was of course the black man--whose existence directly challenged the racial exclusiveness of the new southern manhood.  Political and economic disenfranchisement steadily eroded black men’s claims to “manhood” as providers and autonomous heads of households.  At the same time, legal segregation, supported by lynch-law, demonstrated white men’s absolute right to protect their own women from any contact with such “beasts.”  Stripped of the “natural” authority and dignity of true (white) manhood, black men became imaginatively reduced to mere physicality--mindless strength and unharnessed desire. White women, dependent and vulnerable, were divested of any real agency, while black women bore the brunt of both sexual vulnerability and a racialized physicality.
    Such at least were the ideological models of post-war white supremacy. In fact, as the violence of lynching and the eventual success of woman’s suffrage indicate, these redefinitions of race and gender were hardly seamless. Even their uneven implementation required a series of ritualizations, the most important of which was a redefined meaning of the Civil War itself.

Turning the “Lost Cause” into the New South  
Many scholars have attempted to explain how the South managed to redefine itself after the war, reshaping a slave society into an apartheid state, drawing out of the ruins of the old plantation South a new and more industrialized region, and ultimately transforming a decided military defeat into a great moral victory.  As C. Vann Woodward, the most influential commentator on this era, concluded, the South after the war was schizophrenic.  Its “divided mind” at once looked backward to what it had lost and forward to what it hoped to become:  “The deeper the involvements in commitments to the New Order, the louder the protests of loyalty to the Old” (155).  
    One unlikely component of these transformations, as Gaines Foster explains, was the glorification of the Confederate veteran.  Memorial rituals and monuments took shape gradually after the war, at first simply to give meaning to the tremendous loss and suffering southerners had experienced, but eventually to celebrate the courage and valor expended on behalf of a “Lost Cause.”  Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, organizations like the United Confederate Veterans (formed in New Orleans in 1889) and the United Daughters of the Confederacy (founded in 1895) established and maintained a virtual cult of the glorious southern soldier (Foster 103, 108).
    By the 1880s, the North was signaling its own willingness to join in this uncritical celebration of southern heroism, particularly in the popular press. Between 1884 and 1887, for example, the prestigious Century published a long series of articles entitled “Battles and Leaders of the Civil War,” noting that the time had been reached when “motives will be weighed with out malice, and valor praised without distinction of uniform” (Foster 69). The series included Mark Twain’s bitterly humorous account of his own short-lived Confederate service, “The Private History of a Campaign that Failed” (1885).  The increased focus on honorable military service and glory erased the “lost cause” and the serious issues (such as race relations and states’ rights) that the war had never really settled.  Instead, the celebration of the Confederacy in literature and in social ritual became a ready (if relatively neutral and extremely popular) tool in the service of various contemporary purposes, from the support of white supremacy to the furtherance of political campaigns, from national reconciliation to the founding of the New South.
    The struggle of the southern states in the decades of the eighties and nineties to redefine white authority took place in the context of tremendous economic, technological and social changes, not just in the South, but in the nation as a whole.  While southern industrialization had begun before 1880, manufacturing more than doubled in the majority of southern states during the eighties, and workers in the new textile and steel mills tripled (Foster 80). Free labor and new marketing practices reshaped agriculture, emphasizing the role of small towns and encouraging the growth of inland market centers like Atlanta and Birmingham.  The doubling of railroad mileage, initiated by the radical Republican governments during Reconstruction, not only helped to spread lumbering and cash crops like cotton into areas with fresh access to markets, but also spurred a general population movement toward towns and cities. As urban areas grew, so did the professional classes of merchants, lawyers, doctors, and other businessmen. Their prosperity and proximity also encouraged the adoption of new urban amenities: electric lighting, telephones, modern sewer systems and indoor plumbing.
    Newspaper editors and city boosters began in the early 1880s to proclaim a New South, one ready to leave behind the old “backward” ways of resistance to such changes as free labor and modern industry and eager to welcome collaboration with the North in the exploitation of its rich resources.  The most famous of these spokesmen was young Henry Grady, who with Joel Chandler Harris coedited the Atlanta Constitution.  His landmark 1886 speech to the New England Club in New York projected a powerful image of the South as a vigorous land “having nothing for which to apologize” and standing “upright, full-statured and equal among the people of the earth” (33).  For her northern victors, Grady offered an explicitly feminized place, “misguided, perhaps, but beautiful in her suffering, and honest, brave and generous always” (23).  He called on the country to engage in the noble duty of “uplifting and upbuilding” the region and assured his audience that in the New South “perfect harmony” reigns in every “household,” that the devastated Confederate soldier is “a hero in gray with a heart of gold,” and that “close and cordial relations” exist among the “free Negro” and his white comrades.  In the South, intoned Grady, “we have sowed towns and cities in the place of theories, and put business above politics” (23, 33, 30, 32).    
    While calming northern investors and satisfying southern loyalists, this highly idealized image of the New South hardly quelled the widespread misgivings about the coming of a new industrialized regime and its effects on people’s lives.  One major manifestation of such unrest was the rise of Populism. The movement reflected the displeasure of small farmers, often veterans, who had struggled through general depression, collapsing crop prices, land devaluation and a plethora of policies that favored large planters and businesses.  Even before “redemption,” several radical organizations took shape in the South, the most influential of which was the Farmers Alliance, whose first president was the much-admired, former Confederate General Leonidas Polk.  A remarkably integrated cooperative movement that proclaimed the benefits of North-South cooperation, the Alliance brought together thousands of small farmers, laborers, and other reformers intent on reshaping political power to serve their interests. Its successor and ally, the Populist or People’s Party, proposed an egalitarian revision of the capitalist principles that shaped the Gilded Age.  Although the movement had significant effects on southern elections in 1892, it succumbed to the forces of compromise in the next national elections (Ayers 250).  The erosion of Populism’s political base occurred, in part, from the differing views on racial reform among its northern and southern supporters.  As Nina Silber points out, “reunion sentiments could not mask the fact that southern Populists were committed to a brand of racial politics that was often antithetical to some of the northern farmer’s reform-minded traditions” (101).
    What Populists regarded as rapacious capitalism required a massive, under-paid work force supplied by waves of immigrants from Ireland, England, Asia, and southern and eastern Europe.  Settling primarily in the urban north but also in many southern coastal cities, these immigrants, much like blacks throughout the South, represented a threat to traditional notions of power and mastery, already weakened by the cultural and economic shifts that had transformed rural, independent farmers and merchants into wage laborers under the control of distant managers and inexplicable economic forces.  Grady struck a chord of nationalist pride in his New South speech when he invited native workers southward, declaring that “One Northern immigrant is worthy fifty foreigners” (32).  Increasingly, as Silber points out, northerners themselves began to see in southern conservatism an admirable ability to retain social control over inferior classes.  The negative reaction to immigrants also fueled the decline of northern sympathy for the freedmen and allowed northerners to acquiesce quietly to the South’s insistence in the 1890s that it knew best how to handle the Negro.

Redefining the War: The Marriage of North and South 
Though the North’s willingness to join southerners in redefining the meaning of the Civil War intensified in the 1890s, its foundations had been manifest almost as soon as the battle-dust had cleared. The most conspicuous motivation was the bounty to be reaped by northern investors from the South’s plentiful natural resources.  However, as later southern novels demonstrate--even with such different ideological foundations as George W. Cable’s John March, Southerner (1894) and Thomas Nelson Page’s Red Rock (1898)--the most fertile resource the South contributed to a turbulent nation was not its mineral and agrarian riches, but a highly idealized, hierarchical heritage, based on an aristocratic class structure, courtly male behavior, and proper womanliness.
    The reshaping of northerners’ view of the South and of reunion reflected many of the same gender anxieties that afflicted white southerners in the decades after the war. Immigrants were adapting their unfamiliar social customs and languages to crowded urban districts.  Increasing numbers of young women were entering northern mills and factories, and many substantial female voices were pressing for greater political and economic influence.  As a result, northerners expressed increasing concern about the breakdown of gender spheres and a decline of sexual mores (Silber 9).  Turning South, the industrialized and disempowered northern male began to view nostalgically the southern belle as an epitome of womanhood, recognizing in her a pleasing figure over whom he could exert some control.  As early as the 1860s, the conflation of the South with the innocent belle “provided for the northern male a sweet, double victory; he was once again victorious, not only over the South, but also over womankind” (Silber 10).  In political rhetoric as well as in fiction, essays, illustrations, and historical accounts, North-South reconciliation, depoliticized as a “marriage,” became a pervasive trope. It also provided an immensely popular plot device in authors ranging from northerners like John DeForest to southerners like Cable, Harris, and Page.  Even Chopin framed her first novel, At Fault (1890), with the salvific marriage of a northern entrepreneur and a widowed plantation mistress. Wedded North-South bliss disguised or suppressed such uncomfortable moral issues as the reasons for the war in the first place and the unpleasant persistence of white poverty and black oppression.
    The post-war shift in focus and sympathy--from perceiving the South as rebellious foe to a wayward, though noble, comrade and/or marital “partner”--was dramatic. While the practical effects of that metamorphosis unfolded with predictable unevenness, that it could occur at all was a direct consequence of certain profound changes in national publishing.  While the magazine had been an important feature of American culture since the 1830s, the postbellum era brought a new surge in its growth.  The establishment of the International Copyright Association in 1868 gave writers new incentives to publish and the “magazine trade burgeoned outside eastern publishing centers” (Smith and Price 13). Even so, throughout the seventies and eighties the most influential journals remained the major monthlies of the Northeast: Boston’s Atlantic Monthly and Harper’s Magazine, and New York’s Scribner’s Monthly, which became the Century Magazine in 1881. Presided over by discriminating editors, such as William Dean Howells, Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Richard Watson Gilder, and Henry Mills Alden, and appealing to a relatively elite audience, these journals helped to shape national literary taste and intellectual opinion.  Though staunchly abolitionist and pro-Republican prior to the Civil War, by the 1870s they increasingly reflected northern weariness with Reconstruction and the desire for reconciliation, glossing over the deeply unresolved issues of race.
    These prestigious journals were the most visible constituent of a wide range of periodicals that sprang up following the Civil War; in the concluding decades of the nineteenth-century, the magazine was the primary vehicle for literary reading and entertainment. Ellery Sedgwick notes that 3,300 magazines were published in 1885; 5,500 in 1900.  This explosion of the periodical market can be explained by a number of factors, including new printing technologies and extensive railroad-based distribution systems; however, an essential stimulus was an increasingly wide-flung audience with a voracious appetite for education and entertainment, especially about some of the “other” places that constituted a rapidly expanding nation.  The short story, primarily because of its brevity, became the staple feature of this escalating market, and southern local color was its dominant form.  Opportunities for southern local color blossomed.  As the periodicals eagerly sought fiction and essays to fill their pages, authorship became a more lucrative and acceptable profession, particularly for those, like educated women, who had not always had ready access to publication or supplemental income.    
    As the century drew to a close, many concerns that after the war had seemed sharply divisive had been reconfigured into familiar if not altogether comfortable compromises.  Issues that the war had precipitated had faded from national view, though not altogether from consciousness.  Segregation and de facto disenfranchisement had been allowed to resolve “the Negro problem” in the South, consigning black people to narrow definitions of citizenship and placating the poverty of many whites with the sop of racial superiority.  Reconciliation had effectively erased the moral implications of the war and opened the resources of the South to full exploitation by northern capitalists in exchange for the return of political power back into the hands of the southern planter classes.  What had not yet been fully settled was the “woman question,” but even the new outlines of gender relations were becoming clear.  

The War That Ended the War: The War of 1898.  
The advent of another war precipitated many lingering issues. By the standards of the Civil War or even the Great War of the next century, the War of 1898 (often called the Spanish-American War) was not cataclysmic.  It lasted for a short time (if one does not count, as the nation did not, the many years of guerrilla resistance in the Philippines), and U. S. casualties were limited.  However, the war was a crucial event in U. S. history.  It catapulted Theodore Roosevelt into the Presidency in 1901 and, at the very end of Western Europe’s most extensive period of empire-building, defined the United States as an imperial power.  When it was over, the U. S. had annexed Hawaii and had gained Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands from Spain.  The war also consolidated the delineation of American manhood.  As Kristin Hoganson argues, that redefinition, especially among southerners, helped to confirm that the South as a region was finally “man enough” to rejoin and represent a nation whose own white manliness so transparently underwrote its imperial ambitions and status.
    The fading of the Civil War into history and memory encouraged many to fear that the “manly character” essential to democratic government in the rough and tumble economy of the Gilded Age was fading with it. Practically speaking, many veterans had parlayed their wartime experience (whether Confederate or Union) into very successful political careers.  However, economic depression, the closing of the frontier, the unchecked rise of big business, and widespread corruption in both business and politics fostered the belief that the country was becoming weak and effeminate, a concern that was hardly assuaged by women’s insistence on political equity and greater economic opportunity.  (Hoganson 10-12).  The outbreak of war generated a welcome opportunity to reassert the manliness of the nation, and much of the political rhetoric urging war was in terms of defending the nation’s “honor.”  Many white southerners, immersed in the cult of the Confederacy and its Lost Cause, flocked to enlist, and even many black men, eager to use the war as a demonstration of the manhood denied by the impositions of white supremacy, signed up.  However, as Hoganson demonstrates, the war and its idealization of “military manliness” actually narrowed rather than expanded the prerequisites of citizenship. Blacks could not be white, no matter how valiant, and women could neither be soldiers nor men.
    By the end of the war, the century had turned. The nature of American identity that the Civil War had so profoundly unsettled had begun to precipitate into the shapes it would bear for most of the new century. However, even in the first decade of this new millennium, tensions underlying that identity abided. While whiteness, maleness and the preservation of union were reaffirmed, their preeminence was no longer uncontested: slavery was abolished; women would soon secure the enfranchisement they sought; and laborers and immigrants would shortly assert their own prerogatives and contributions to the American ideal.  In the early 1900s, the consequences of these shifts in identity were writ large in social conflict and active dissent.
    Led by men like W.E.B. DuBois, a native of Massachusetts and the first black man to receive a degree from Harvard, and women like Alice Dunbar-Nelson and Ida B. Wells, African Americans began to organize themselves against the indignities and violence of Jim Crow. The National Association of Colored Women was founded in 1903 to resist lynching and peonage, followed seven years later by the influential National Association of Colored People. Exchanging the blunt oppressions of the South for better opportunities in the North during the Great Migrations surrounding World War I, blacks developed vibrant ethnic communities that fostered original forms of music, like the blues and jazz, and created the spirited atmosphere that would later give birth to the urban movement collectively known as the "New Negro Movement" or, more popularly, the "Harlem Renaissance."
    Both black and white women intensified their commitment to suffrage, a goal they finally achieved in 1919. However, as women pursued the vote, they also began to recognize the narrowness of that aim, a point that Elizabeth Cady Stanton had tried to make years before. The changes in women’s lives--from a greater and growing presence in the workplace to the birth control education advocated by Margaret Sanger--exacerbated the distance between traditional notions of femininity and the social reforms necessary to support women’s new roles. Many women joined progressive movements, demanding reforms as various as the regulation of meat and food inspection, the control of rail and oil monopolies, and the abolition of child labor--an abuse particularly rampant in southern textile mills.
    The explosive growth of the Progressive movement in the early twentieth century was largely a response to the unbridled exploitation of human and natural resources launched in the decades following the Civil War. The Robber Barons of the Gilded Age, who had created both the demand for new workers and their dismal conditions, faced a myriad of strikes, boycotts and other organized resistance in the decades before and after 1900.  Though the unions themselves were often exclusive, rejecting both women and black men, an exception was the Industrial Workers of the World formed in Chicago in 1905. Determined to create “One Big Union" not separated by gender or race or skills, the “Wobblies” represented one of the most powerful versions of the inclusive identity that mirrors the deliberate diversity of U. S. culture.  A dramatic and popular force for social change, the IWW was gradually discredited by conservative forces that slowly suppressed such reforms after 1914, and the Wobblies' inclusive ideology tainted the very idea of socialism as anti-democratic for a whole century (Zinn 31-76).  In many ways, the radical activism of the early twentieth century was a ripening of the profound social reorganization prompted by the Civil War and its unsettling aftermath.  By 1910, the South as an issue and the local color fiction that had served to articulate the conflicts of a nation redefining itself had lost the public’s interest.  However, in the cauldron of the four earlier decades and, particularly in its popular literature, American identity had been profoundly redefined.  No literary type was more integral or significant to the enterprise than southern local-color fiction.

Marketing the Exotic: The Postbellum Rise of Southern Local Color
With the destruction of the regional economy and southerners struggling to reconstruct a coherent society, southern fiction had in fact lain dormant for almost a decade after the Civil War.  The means for its resurgence--like so many other aspects of the South’s recovery--eventually came from the North.  In the 1870’s, as magazines multiplied throughout the publishing centers of the Northeast, the most prestigious and widely circulated of them began to seek out southern material:  among them, Scribner’s Monthly (later CenturyMagazine), Lippincott’s,Harper’s Magazine, and, eventually, the Atlantic Monthly.  Coupled with popular family periodicals like Youth’s Companion and Wide Awake and a multitude of local newspapers, they created a fertile and lucrative venue for southern materials and for many new writers, who drew, in part, on the readership Simms, the Southwest humorists, and the domestic novelists had cultivated before the war.
    One stimulus to this reinvigorated interest in the South was tourism.  The prosperous extension of northern middle and upper classes as well as the expansion of the railroads made southern tourism an entertaining and instructional means of asserting social status.  The post-war South, with its ruined mansions redolent of lost glory and the patent otherness of its rural inhabitants, both black and white, furnished a superb experience of the exotic for both physical and mental travelers.  Northern journals encouraged touristic attitudes through numerous southern travelogues.  In one of the most aggressive efforts to reacquaint readers with the South as well as to identify promising southern writers, Scribner’s Monthly sent Edward King and an illustrator on an excursion through the former Confederacy in 1872.  Commencing the next year as Scribner's installments and published in three volumes in 1875, King’s prodigious report celebrated “the current of travel pouring over the great roadways from New York to New Orleans and from the West and St. Louis to the Atlantic coast” (722).  His project encompassed more than 880,000 square miles of “fifteen ex-slave states” and the “Indian territories” and provided a compendium of rising southern commerce, social commentary, history, travel sketches, statistics, and, of course, illustrations (722).  The extensive series proved an influential tool in moderating attitudes toward the defeated South--and promoting southern writers.  During his sojourn in New Orleans, for example, King “discovered” New Orleans cotton warehouse clerk George Washington Cable.  King encouraged Scribner’s to publish Cable’s first story in 1873, and southern local color was launched.  Harper’s also ran a series of southern articles in 1873-74 and, under the leadership of editor Henry Mills Alden, eventually published a number of southern writers, notably Grace King and James Lane Allen.   
    CenturyMagazine editor L. Frank Tooker explained that the readiness to publish southern authors was based on the “courtesy and tact of the South” with its willingness to remove the “old hostility” and on the value of the literature which “blazed a new path in America--a path marked by the most pronounced local color, irradiated by humor and tender romanticism" (Hubbell 728).  While the Atlantic resisted the popular tide of southern materials until the 1880s, its influential editor William Dean Howells did publish former Confederate veteran (and native Hoosier) George Cary Eggleston’s “A Rebel’s Recollections” and Twain’s “True Story” in 1874, as well as Murfree’s Tennessee mountain stories in the later 1870s.  
    The popularity of southern characters and settings eventually even prompted a number of northern writers to try their hands at the genre, among them New England regionalists Sarah Orne Jewett and Mary Wilkins Freeman; none, however, enjoyed the earlier success of New Hampshire born Constance Fenimore Woolson, whose first southern story, “Miss Elisabetha,” appeared in Appleton’s Journal in 1874.
    The necessity for filling millions of pages (an estimated three million by 1890) opened national publishing opportunities for many new writers across the country.  In effect, the proliferation of magazines and the short fiction they encouraged became a critical attendant to the nation’s efforts to redefine its regional relationships and national identity.  Southern local color fiction, which promptly dominated the periodical market, was crucial in that redefinition.
    While the local-color short story inherited both the models of Hawthorne and Poe’s tales as well as the magazine markets that supported them, there were important distinctions.  Post-war fiction, like the culture that produced it, was affected by a sharper skepticism and a stronger reliance on empirical measures of truth than antebellum literature.  What Hawthorne and Simms as well as the plantation and domestic novelists variously understood as “romance” was replaced by a “new realism,” championed by influential editors and novelists like Howells and Twain.  As a distinct narrative aesthetic, realism’s roots were continental, applied first to the accurate, unidealized descriptions of the novels of Gustave Flaubert.  The term la couleur locale also developed in France in the 1850s, where Flaubert and countryman Guy de Maupassant considered it “the essence of realism."  In the United States, however, realism was promptly claimed as offering the most authentic version of American experience, and local color was regarded as one of its leading embodiments.  As late as 1927, literary critic Vernon Parrington singled out southern writers Cable and Murfree to demonstrate that local color was an indigenous American form “sprung from the soil, a “native growth . . . unconcerned with European technique” (III 238).  But whether import or native, the hallmarks of local color were manifestly realistic: an accurate attention to detail, an emphasis on landscape, carefully created characters, provincial customs, and the peculiarities of local speech (dialect).  But what also characterized local color was its interest in difference--not simply “realistic” portraits, but portraits of some “other” places and experience, a role that the South--with its lively frontier humor traditions, racialized family structures, slave-holding rebel past, and renewed attractiveness both to tourists and investors--played like a natural.

The Elements of Local Color: Exotic Settings, Characters, and Dialect
Since readers were usually assumed to share the perspectives--physical and social--of publishers in the urban northeast, much of the United States, particularly its rural reaches and inhabitants, was deemed “exotic.”  As a region whose dissimilarities had been profound enough to warrant civil war, the “Great South” was an especially “different” place.  Its varied landscapes and isolated cultural pockets offered appealing sources of unfamiliarity for writers to deploy: the misty Tennessee mountains of Murfree and Elliott; the Florida marshes of Woolson; the southeastern plantations of Harris, Bonner, and Page; the Alabama and Texas of Davis; the North Carolina settlements of Chesnutt; and the Creole and Acadian Louisiana of Cable, Hearn, Stuart, King, Chopin, and Dunbar-Nelson.  Writers like Harris, Stuart, Octave Thanet, Ambrose Gonzales and James Lane Allen placed other southern states, such as Georgia, Arkansas, South Carolina and Kentucky into this fictional topography.  Typically authors were associated by reputation with a particular place, though some, including Page, Davis, Harris, Bonner, and Twain, turned occasionally to other settings; others, like Paul Laurence Dunbar adopted a variety of locales, including the generically southern, such as his unspecified “Happy Hollow,” which Dunbar identified as whatever city or village blacks occupied as their own.  The richness and strangeness of setting were so central to the genre that the local-color “sketch,” in contrast to the more fully realized “story,” often evoked just the flavor of an interesting place, as in Dunbar-Nelson’s “Praline Woman” or any number of Hearn’s reflective pieces.
    The singularity of these “other” places was further confirmed by the “characters” who populated them.  For the presumably urban (and implicitly urbane) reader, even the ordinary--“real”--lives of these folk were eccentric, quaint, charming, or surprisingly different.  Writers quickly learned to exploit and even exaggerate such disparities.  Perhaps the most distinctive feature of these “different” people--and the most difficult to convey on the printed page--was their speech.  Careful phonetic transcriptions (which were often as much an obstacle for contemporary readers as for modern ones) became a signal element of local color’s realism.  Writers such as Twain, Harris, Bonner, Cable, Murfree, Hearn, Chesnutt, and Stuart took great pains to enunciate the varieties of southern dialect.  Harris and Cable, among others, consciously pursued the essentially ethnographical task of accurately recording the differing speech patterns and customs of the souths they knew.
    Nineteenth-century interest in dialect was part of a general concern about language, especially the provenance of English and Anglo-Saxon culture and related anxieties about national identity.  One popular view maintained that the country’s various speech communities would eventually amalgamate into a national vernacular, brought about--as John Fiske speculated in 1891--by the “continuous business communication among large bodies of men” (660).  The process of achieving a standard American speech, of course, would require melding the various local accents into a single national tongue.  Seeking, among other ends, ways to advance commerce, reformists like Fiske argued that in “speech, as in other aspects of social life, the progress of mankind is from fragmentariness to solidarity” (664).  Implicitly and often quite consciously, the representation of various speech patterns in local color insinuated a resistance to this “progressive” leveling process.
    But as Gavin Jones demonstrates, dialect served any number of often contradictory functions during the Gilded Age, including the subordination of “other” spoken identities to a dominant cultural standard (46).  Brodhead, North and others have emphasized this demeaning function, especially in white representations of black speech, which marked African Americans’ language (together with their persons) as inferior.  In this sense, southern black dialect, as Walter Benn Michaels argues, augmented the work of Jim Crow by isolating race as an autonomous human characteristic (739).  Becoming more than simply a marker of realism and locale, dialect helped to identify “blackness” or race as independent of region, ultimately transcending both place and skin tone (“not white” covered an infinite array of pigmentations), but representable in the abstractions of speech as firmly as in the abstract laws of segregation.  However, as Jones insists, in the hands of Dunbar or Chesnutt or Cable, dialect could also subvert those same hegemonies, by revealing either the inadequacy of representing another’s speech or the interpenetration of standard and non-standard speech, the indistinguishable creolization of black and white language and culture (46, 133).
    Like dialect, the narrative perspective of much local color fiction emphasized the marginality of its material.  Self-consciously more “national,” educated, and sophisticated than the subjects of the fiction, the writer and the story’s narrator mediated between the reader and those various “others,” who could not themselves claim any such shared identity and authority--a point duly emphasized by their phonetically marked speech.  The local-color narrator was often an outsider, someone external to the action, who was yet able to observe and comment perceptively and, the reader assumed, accurately.  Like dialect, that distance could nonetheless serve disparate intentions and often reflected a complex negotiation of those audiences.  For example, southern writers King and Chesnutt, who were keenly aware--albeit from very different perspectives--of the biases and even ignorance of northern publishers and readers, were both self-conscious interpreters of their region’s differences.  More typical were Stuart and Murfree, who sought to differentiate themselves (and thus the social strata they occupied) from the folly or coarseness of those “other” black or mountain southerners they were presenting.
    Southern communities and families, with their complex webs of class, racial, and gender relationships, provided a particularly fertile source of narrative tropes.  As in antebellum domestic fiction, the formation of family often functioned as a figure of national reconciliation: north-south infatuations (usually leading to marriage) structured numerous tales, including Harris’ “Story of the War,” Murfree’s “Star of the Valley,” and Page’s “Meh Lady.”  Merrill Skaggs has demonstrated the prominence of communal gatherings in southern stories, such as the Christmas visit in Page’s “Unc' Edinburgh’s Drowndin’” or the festivities in Davis’s “A Bamboula.”  Black servants’ identification with their white “family” provided another narrative mainstay:  the faithfully loving black “Aunts,” “Uncles,” and “Gran’mammy” in the fiction of Page, Harris, and Bonner.  But writers also exposed the ironies of such assumed loyalties, as in Twain’s “A True Story,” Dunbar’s “Nelse Hatton’s Revenge,” and many of Chesnutt’s stories, including his 1912 story, “The Doll,” “The Passing of Grandison” and all the Uncle Julius’ tales.
    Just as a racialized dialect could expose character, a hidden racial heritage provided the pivot of many plots.  Such stories depended on individuals of biracial or uncertain ancestry who “passed,” sometimes unknowingly, as “pure” white, usually with disasterous consequences.  Chopin’s “Désirée’s Baby” is the most famous instance of this story line, but Harris’ “Where’s Duncan?”, Elliott’s “The Heart of It,” King’s “The Little Convent Girl,” and both Dunbar-Nelson’s “Sister Josepha” and “Stones of the Village,” all utilize the device.  A complementary variant also emerged involving cross-race lovers and their same-race rivals, typically resulting in death for the black character.  Cable’s excerpt from The Grandissimes and Davis’s “A Bamboula” both employ this pattern, while Chopin’s unpublished story “The Storm” features a cross-class relationship.  While such plots traded on the dangerous sensuality of mixed-heritage women, others tentatively explored the limited autonomy of white women, as in King’s “La Grande Demoiselle” or even her abusive subjugation, as in Dunbar-Nelson’s “Tony’s Wife” or Chopin’s “In Sabine.”  Still others mirrored the prevailing ideology that white women were venerated by white and black men alike.  Many of Page’s stories rest on this notion, as does Davis’s “A Bamboula” and, in a quite different fashion, Dunbar’s “A Lynching of Jube Benson,” which unmasks the racial bigotry and violence such veneration conceals.
    As Edward King began his "Great South" series for Scribner's, he carefully condemned the South's "unjust civilization of the past," but he also found its cultural riches not only "picturesque" and starkly different from “the prosaic and leveling civilization of the present” (2).  That shift--seeing the inequities of southern society as simply a “picturesque” counter to the “prosaic” equality of a modern democracy--marked a profound turn in the relationship between the antithetical social and economic visions that had provoked the Civil War.  This turn would only sharpen in the next two decades.  King had predicted that the "Paradise Lost" of the South in twenty years "may just be Paradise Regained."  His remark proved prophetic.

Section Three: The Practice of Southern Local Color

The First Southern Local-Color Stories
The complex tensions in southern local color are evident in the fiction of its first practitioner, Louisianian and former Confederate officer, George W. Cable.  His outrage against racial injustice is evident in his first story “Bibi,” which King admired.  Its account of a rebellious slave tortured by his owner was too inflammatory, however, for either the Atlantic Monthly or Scribner’s, both of which rejected it as distressing and violent.  King did persuade Scribner’s to publish the less troubling “’Sieur George” in 1873.  The social criticism that typified Cable's early work is more contained and palatable in this story, which warns against the mental and social erosion of an effete Creole past.  Scribner’s then urged Cable to “work as religiously as if you had already Bret Harte’s reputation--& perhaps you may have one as lasting” (Biklé 48).  The magazine’s conviction about the salability of Cable’s work was confirmed by the rapid publication of six more stories (1873-1876), that later formed the core of Cable’s 1879 collection Old Creole Days.  Immediately popular, Cable’s fiction featured a dark strain of violence, social unrest, economic tension, and the racial complexities that King had encountered on his southern tour.  But much of this darkness is suppressed or palliated by Cable’s luxurious southern settings and romantic resolutions.  Like King, Cable saw in the decadent charm of the old Creole world a reassuring contrast to the spirited brashness, even rudeness, of the emerging “Americain” society.  Although Cable would eventually reject the plantation tradition and deplore its legacies, these early stories reveal his fascination with its voluptuous decadence--a fascination the reading public eagerly shared.  Jadis, the title he originally proposed for his first collection, poignantly invoked these seductions.  “Jadis,” explained Cable, “signified, as near as I can give it in English, once, in the fairy-tale sense; ‘once upon a time,’ or ‘in old times’” (Biklé 58).  Such yearnings, together with the charming eccentricities of Creole and French Acadian life, established an enthusiastic audience for Louisiana fiction, which was satisfied by a host of talented writers, including Hearn in the 1880s, and King, Chopin, Stuart, and Dunbar-Nelson in the 1890s.  
    With his careful reproduction of Creole accents, Cable confirmed the integral role of dialect in southern local color.  But it was black dialect that became its most familiar marker.  Mark Twain, with obvious debts to his Western yarns and Southwestern humor, first experimented with black dialect in two stories, both published in November 1874.  In “Sociable Jimmy” the narrator, a public lecturer and visitor to an Illinois village, chats with a garrulous ten-year-old black serving boy.  Like that tale, Twain’s first Atlantic Monthly publication, “A True Story: Repeated Word for Word as I Heard It” was based on an actual conversation.  Both stories are framed by an uninformed, but sophisticated listener.  “A True Story,” however, involves explicitly southern material, and its narrator emerges as foolishly unknowing, even culpable, while its informant, Aunt Rachel, grows in stature recounting the desperation of blacks’ prewar bondage and the joy of northern-won freedom.  In presenting her poignant account of injustice and resistance, Twain exposes both the horrors of slavery as well as his own (and the reader’s) ignorant assumptions about the happy conditions of black folk.  Such resistant perspectives appear early in southern local color, though they tended to remain, as in Twain and Cable, as undercurrents rather than main streams.
    Twain’s venerable black woman who cooks for white people is fictional kin to the black slave “mammy" Sherwood Bonner is generally credited with creating in her dialect “Gran’mammy tales,” first published in July 1875 and later collected in Suwanee River Tales (1884).  Bonner’s Gran’mammy, who generated a crucial type in southern local color, also evoked the unstated foundations of racial interdependence.  In the collected version of the story, Gran'mammy, who controls her plantation kitchen, pointedly ejects her own “tar-baby” grandchildren and, at the same time, adores the privileged white master’s children, whom she raises; she loves God with “childlike simplicity” and exhibits an unfailing love for her white plantation family.  Like Twain’s spirited Aunt Rachel, Gran’mammy is a survivor, but she remains indissolubly linked to the white family she serves, emphasizing a significant strand in the tangle of southern kinship and heralding the many stereotypes, especially of blacks, that filled the repertoire of southern local color.   
    Although Bonner’s stories were based on her Mississippi childhood, Gran’mammy shares much with Harris’s Uncle Remus, the Georgian ex-slave who first appeared in a newspaper sketch in 1876.  Newspapers were, like magazines, an important vehicle for local color fiction, and both ”Uncle Remus as a Rebel” (1877) and “The Story of Mr. Rabbit and Mr. Fox” (1879) were published in the Atlanta Constitution, which was rapidly becoming the voice of the reconstituted New South.  The benign figure of Uncle Remus, willingly instructing whites about black culture, was, like Gran’mammy, a reassuring image of blacks’ continued fidelity to the conventional southern models of society.  The immense success of Harris’ 1880 collection, Uncle Remus:  His Songs and Sayings (the first printing sold ten thousand copies) confirmed the power of this folk figure, who captured the American imagination for decades.  In collecting his early stories, however, Harris significantly revised the titles, improved the stories’ dialect and ethnographical verisimilitude (Harris became revered as a folklore collector), and enhanced their incipient note of plantation nostalgia--all changes that reflected the shifting emphases of southern local color itself.  For example, originally entitled “Uncle Remus as a Rebel” and framed by a northern woman’s report of Remus’ account of events, Harris renamed the collected version “A Story of the War” and shifted the focus from the fiercely protective southern black rebel Remus, who shoots a Union soldier while safeguarding his young Mistress Sally, to the postwar marriage of the confederate Miss Sally with Marse John, a wounded Union officer.  Prefacing the new volume with ”Uncle Remus Initiates the Little Boy,” the initiation of northern readers into the folkways and values of the South became explicit.  John and Sally’s six-year-old son, figuratively the hope of a newly reunited nation, sits in the flickering firelight of Uncle Remus’ cabin and begs for stories, often asking questions as Uncle Remus beguiles him with tale after tale of a dancing, singing, smoking, tobacco-chewing trickster rabbit, a thinly veiled portrait of the black freedmen, who were indeed still dancing ambivalently to the tunes of white society.

Outsiders: The Southern Mountain Stories 
Although plantation life and black interpreters remained standard in southern local color, another important venue was the Appalachian mountain range of Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia, and Kentucky--a locale first explored in the Sut Lovingood yarns of eastern Tennessee, composed primarily in the 1850s and 1860s by George Washington Harris, who was regarded as “the most original and gifted of the antebellum humorists” (Rubin 155).  Lippincott’s Magazine, established in 1868, was especially hospitable to southern writers, and in the early 1870’s, it printed two works by one Mary Noailles Murfree.  But it was in the Atlantic Monthly that Murfree found her real niche, with the publication of “The Dancin’ Party at Harrison’s Cove” under her pen name, “Charles Egbert Craddock.”  This story of a quaint settlement of hill people nestled in “the wild spur of the Alleghenies” opened a literary passage for virtual wagon-loads of popular Appalachian mountain stories by a host of authors, including Bonner, Harris, Page, and Woolson.  The mountain settings dramatized the independent, egalitarian spirit of its white inhabitants, who had occupied their land for generations.  Here, declared Murfree in her collection In the Tennessee Mountains, was “pride, so intense that it recognizes no superior, so inordinate that one is tempted to cry out, Here are the true republicans!” (186).
    In contrast to the Civil War, where the struggle was over such far-reaching issues as legal servitude and political secession, the fictional rivalries in the hills stemmed from long-standing family discord or jealous courtships.  Moreover, the disputes were settled by an acceptable man-play of untutored farmers and moonshiners, dedicated to maintaining codes of loyalty to one another and, more importantly, to the nation.  For example, expressing his stalwart belief in the United States and the idiocy of a war to abolish slavery, one of Harris’s hillbillies simply dismisses the issue altogether:  “I hain’t got none [slaves], and I hain’t a-wantin’ none”; “Them dad-blasted Restercrats a-secedin’ out’n the Nunited States. . . . The Nunited States is big enough for me" (49-50).  The mountaineers’ isolation and their eccentric ways also provided broad opportunities for humor; however, the sophisticated visitors, who so often framed these stories, were also assured of a traditional folk wisdom that valued individuality over any foolish efforts at social reform or the intrusions of progress.  With the exception of their illegal whiskey distilleries, the mountain men were vigorously anti-commercial, and, though often portrayed as shiftless, dense, and backward, they were also tenacious and spirited.  “Men’s men,” they dominate rude households made livable by their compliant wives.  
    This formidably conservative male power, however, was frequently undercut by the “mountain pink” woman (to borrow Bonner’s term for the sensuous type she introduced in her story "Jack and the Mountain Pink," [1883]).  Curiosity, willfulness, and sensual desire propelled these mountain women, almost unconsciously, into more fluid cultural spaces than the fixed heritage they are obliged to protect.  Seeking romance with sophisticated outlanders, they often pay for their transgressive ventures into (typically) unrequited love with injury or death (as in Harris’ “Trouble on Lost Mountain,” 1886).  The mountain stories thus significantly modified the standard North-South marriage of much southern local color: the mountains typically kept the girl.  
    In this “unraced” mountain configuration of the South, racial heritage was pointedly invisible.  The isolated (and implicitly white) mountain man, not the (implicitly northern) visitor, represented the steadfast independence of the republic.  Making just this point in an 1896 story, Kentucky writer John Fox, Jr., established an unqualified English, egalitarian lineage for his mountaineer: “this last, silent figure, traced through Virginia, was closely linked by blood and speech with the common people of England . . . .  strikingly unchanged . . . [he is] the most distinctively national remnant in the American soil” and symbolizes “the development of the continent" (Skaggs 144).  In the mountains, southern local color fiction was particularly free to affirm its national allegiances, even as it confirmed the Anglo-Saxon complexion of that loyalty.
    Although national reconciliation remained a prominent thematic feature in southern local color, some early writers did acknowledge the formidable obstacles to any easy reunion.  The often disregarded stories of Woolson, who began publishing southern material in Harper

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