Effects Of Sound Pollution Essay

Noise pollution or sound pollution refers to the presence of excessive and disturbing noise (from machines, transportation systems, aircrafts, trains, etc) in the environment that is very harmful to the physical and mental health of the living beings on earth.

Noise pollution : Causes of Noise Pollution | Effects of Noise Pollution | Diseases caused by Noise Pollution | How to Control Noise Pollution

Essay on Noise Pollution

Noise pollution has become one of the big problems in India affecting the human lives in many ways. We all should know the causes, effects and most importantly the preventive measures of the noise pollution in order to get prevented from the effects of it. School students generally get this topic to write something according to their own view during the competitions like essay writing, etc. We have provided below some easily written essay on noise pollution under different words limit for students. You can select any noise pollution essay according to your need and requirement.

Noise Pollution Essay 1 (100 words)

Noise pollution is considered as the environmental pollution caused in the environment by the excess level of noise through many sources. Noise pollution is also known as the noise disturbance. Excessive noise is harmful to the health and cause imbalance to the human or animal life. It has been a massive environmental issue in India which needs a proper attention to be solved however it is less dangerous than the water, air and soil pollution. Outdoor noise is hugely caused by the sources like machines, transportation systems, poor urban planning (construction of side-by-side industrial and residential buildings), etc. Indoor noise sources are household machines, building activities, loud music, etc. The most common impairment caused by the noise pollution is the permanent hearing loss due to ear drum damage.

Noise Pollution Essay 2 (150 words)

Normal level of the sound is necessary to maintain the daily lives however undesired sound or noise which is not tolerated by the people, animals or plants causes noise pollution in the environment. Noise is commonly called as the unwanted sound created by many industrial or non-industrial sources used in the daily life in our surrounding. High level sound creates unpleasant effects and discomfort to the health especially to the ears.

Unwanted sound generally interferes with the daily routine activities like sleep in night, conversation, hearing ability, feeling of well being, etc. Water animals are also affected by the noise pollution created by the noise of submarines and big ships in the ocean. Forest animals have been affected to a great extent due to the chain-saw operations (create extreme noise) by timber companies. Common sources of the noise pollution are household gadgets, transport vehicles, jet planes, helicopters, industrial machines, etc. According to the World Health Organization, industries must limit their sound production by 75 dB.

Noise Pollution Essay 3 (200 words)

Noise pollution is the pollution caused by the high and unsafe level of noise in the environment causes lots of health disorders to the human beings, animals and plants. Common problems caused by the noise pollution are stress related illnesses, anxiety, communication problems, speech interference, hearing loss, lost productivity, sleep disruption, fatigue, headache, irritability, nervousness, weakness, reduce sensitivity to sound which our ear receive to maintain body rhythm, etc. It causes gradual impairment to the hearing ability over a long period of time. Continuous exposure to high level sound causes permanent damage to the eardrum.

High level of the noise causes huge nuisance, injuries, physical trauma, bleeding around brain, large bubbles in organs and even death to the marine animals specially whales and dolphins as they use their hearing ability to communicate, find food, defend and survive in water. Source of noise in the water is navy submarine’s sonar which can be felt around 300 miles away. The consequences of the noise pollution are more dangerous and worrying in the near future.

There are many preventive measures of the noise pollution, some are like promoting soundproof rooms construction in the industries, industries and factories should be away from the residential building, repairing of motorbikes having damaged exhaust pipes, ban of noisy vehicles, airports, bus, railway stations and other transport terminals should be far from the living places, declaring silence zones near educational institutes and hospitals, allowing more vegetation along with roads and residential areas in order to reduce noise pollution by absorbing sound.

Noise Pollution Essay 4 (250 words)

Noise pollution is caused by the high level of unwanted sound in the environment which causes pain. Some of the main sources of the noise pollution are like noise generated by the road traffic, air craft noise, railroads noise, noise generated by the construction (of buildings, highways, city streets, flyovers, etc), industrial noise, noise created in home on daily basis (due to electrical home appliances, plumbing, generators, air conditioners, boilers, fans, etc), and noise from consumer products (like household equipments, kitchen appliances, vacuum cleaners, washing machine, mixer, juicer, pressure cooker, TV, mobile, dryer, cooler, etc).

In some countries (highly populated countries like India, etc) poor urban planning also plays vital role in the noise pollution as this planning includes the construction of congested houses having large families in small space (causing fight for parking, fights for basic requirements, etc) lead to the noise pollution. New generation people play music in full volume and dance for late night causing lots of physical and mental disturbances to the neighbors. High level of noise causes loss of normal person’s ability to hear properly. High level of noise slowly affects the health and acts as slow poison.

It hugely affects the wildlife, lives of plants, and human beings. Normally, the ability of our ear is to accept the only certain range of sounds without making any damage to the ear. However, our ear cannot bear the regular exposure to loud levels of noise and get damage to the ear drums which results in the temporary or permanent loss of hearing. It also causes other disorders like sleeping disorders, fatigue, weakness, cardiovascular issues, stress, high blood pressure, communication problem, etc.


 

Noise Pollution Essay 5 (300 words)

There are various types of pollution in the environment, soil pollution is one of them and have become more dangerous to the health. It has become so dangerous that it can be compared to the other most dangerous problems like cancer, etc in which slow death is sure. Noise pollution is the dangerous gift of modern living style and increasing level of industrialization and urbanization. If regular and effective actions are not taken to control, it can be very serious to the future generations. Noise pollution is the pollution caused by the noise due to the increased level of unwanted sound in the environment. It is a big potential hazard to the health and causes huge level of communication problems.

High level of noise brings irritation in the behavior of many people especially diseased, old people and pregnant women. Unwanted sound causes deafness problem and other chronic disorders to the ear like damage to the ear drum, ear pain, etc. Sometimes high sound music pleases the listeners however irritates other people. Any undesired sound in the environment is injurious to the health. Some of the sources participating highly in the noise pollution are industries, factories, transportation, traffic, aeroplane engines, train sounds, home appliances, construction, etc.

The noise level of 60 db is considered as the normal noise however, noise level of 80 db or above become physically painful and harmful to the health. Cities having high noise quantum are Delhi (80 db), Kolkata (87 db), Bombay (85 db), Chennai (89 db), etc. Limiting the amount of noise to a safe level has become very necessary for the life on the earth as undesired noise affects the health of human beings, plants and animals too. It is possible through the general awareness among public about the noise pollution, its main sources, it’s dangerous effects, as well as all the possible preventive measures to get prevented from the noise pollution.


 

Noise Pollution Essay 6 (400 words)

Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is caused by the noise when the level of noise gets increased than the normal level in the environment. Excessive amount of noise in the environment is unsafe for the living purpose. Unpleasant sound causes various disturbances in the natural balance. High volume noises are unnatural and create difficulty in escaping those generated noises. In such a modern and technological world, where everything is possible through the electrical appliances at home or outside the home, the risk of noise has been increased to a great extent.

Increasing the demand of urbanization and industrialization in India is causing major exposure of people to the unwanted sounds. Understanding, planning and implementing strategies to get prevented from the noise pollution has been necessary to curb within time. The sounds we make in our everyday life like loud music, unnecessary use of television, phone, traffic, dog barking and etc noise creating sources have become part of the urban culture as well as most disturbing things causing headache, sleep disturbances, stress, etc. Those things causing disturbance to the natural rhythm of life are called as dangerous pollutant. Following are the causes or sources and effects of the noise pollution:

Causes of Noise Pollution

  • Industrialization is putting our health and life at risk because all the (big or small) industries are using big machines producing high pitch sound in large amount. Other equipments (compressors, generators, exhaust fans, grinding mills) used in the factories and industries also produces big noise.
  • Regular social events like marriages, parties, pub, club, disc or place of worship, temples, etc create nuisance in the residential area.
  • Increasing transportation in the cities (vehicles, aeroplanes, underground trains, etc) produces heavy noise.
  • Regular construction activities (including mining, bridges, building, dams, stations, roads, flyovers, etc) involve big equipments creating high level of noise.
  • Use of household appliances in our daily life is also the main reason noise pollution.

Effects of Noise Pollution

  • Noise pollution causes various hearing problems (damage to ear drums and loss of hearing) because of the unwanted sound.
  • It reduces ear sensitivity to the sounds required to regulate body rhythm.
  • It affects the psychological health and causes the occurrence of aggressive behavior, sleep disturbance, stress, weakness, fatigue, hypertension, cardio-vascular diseases including other severe and chronic health issues in later life.
  • It creates communication problems and lead to misunderstanding.
  • Affects wildlife and makes pets more aggressive.

Preventive Measures:

General awareness should be increased among people and all the rules should be followed seriously by everyone in order to control the unsafe sound level in the environment. Unnecessary use of things generating high pitch sound should be reduced in the home or outside the home like clubs, parties, bars, discos, etc.


 

Noise Pollution Essay 7 (800 words)

Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is the pollution caused by the various noise sources whether by the industrial or non-industrial affecting the human beings, plants and animals health in many aspects. Regularly increasing level of the noise pollution is keeping the lives of people of present generation and coming generations at high risk. I have discussed below the sources, effects, legal aspects control noise pollution and conclusion of the noise pollution.

Following are the sources of noise pollution

The level of noise pollution has been increased a lot in India by the urbanization, modern civilization, industrialization, etc. The spread of noise is caused by the industrial and non-industrial sources. Industrial sources of noise include the use of big machines of high technologies working at high speed and high level of noise intensity in the various industries. Non-industrial sources of noise include noise created outside the industries such as through the transport, vehicles traffic and other means by people. Non-industrial source of noise can be natural or man made. Some of the industrial and non-industrial sources of noise pollution are mentioned below:

  • Noise created by the low flying military aircraft has also added noise pollution to the environment to a great extent.
  • Road traffic noise is increasing day by day in the city because of the motors and exhaust system of vehicles like trucks, buses, autos, motorcycles, personal cars, etc. Tall buildings in the cities cause noise to resound in that area for some time.
  • Industrial noise created by the manufacturing plants because of the use of motors, compressors, fans, etc.
  • Construction noises created by the construction of tall buildings, roads, highways, city streets, etc through the use of pneumatic hammers, bulldozers, air compressors, dump trucks, loaders, pavement breakers, etc.
  • Rail roads noise (from locomotive engines, whistles, horns, switching or shunting operations in the rail yards) are also very effective in the creating high level of noise pollution as they create peak level of noise of around 120 dB to the 100 feet distance.
  • Noise created in the building because of the plumbing, generators, boilers, household equipments, music, air conditioners, vacuum cleaners, kitchen appliances, fans, and other noisy activities in the neighborhood.
  • Another source of noise pollution is the use of variety of fire crackers (high sound generating) during the festivals and other family occasions.

Following are the effects of noise pollution

Noise pollution highly affects the health of human beings, animals and properties. Some of are mentioned below:

  • Increasing noise pollution day by day is decreasing the efficiency and quality of work of human beings.
  • Noise pollution reduces concentration level as high level of noise causes fatigue and tiredness.
  • Hugely affects the pregnant women and cause irritation and abortion.
  • Causes various diseases (high blood pressure and mental illness) to the people because it disturbs the peace of mind.
  • High level of noise decreases quality of work and thus causes lack of concentration level.
  • It may cause temporary or permanent deafness because noise level of 80 to 100 db is unsafe for the people.
  • It also damage historical monuments, old buildings, bridges, etc because it weakens the structure by creating dangerous waves which struck to the walls.
  • Animals lose control on their mind and can be more dangerous because high level noise damage their nervous system.
  • It also affects the plants and causes poor quality crops production.

Following are legal aspects to control noise pollution

  • Constitution of India guarantees right to life, right to information, right to religion and noise.
  • Section 133 empowers human being to remove a public nuisance on a conditional or permanent order.
  • Noise Pollution Control Rule 2000 under Environment Protection Act 1996 involves controlling the growing problem of noise pollution.
  • Factories Act Reduction of Noise and Oil of Machinery limits for noise exposure in the work zone.
  • Motor Vehicle Act involves the use of horn and change of fault engines.
  • Indian Penal code deals with the health and safety issues caused by the noise pollution. One can be penalized under law of torts.

Conclusion

Increasing level of noise pollution has created the urgent need of general awareness about the sources, effects and preventive measures of the noise pollution. High level of noise should be prohibited in the areas like working places, educational institutes, residential areas, hospitals, etc. Young children and students should be motivated to not get involved in the high sound producing acts like use of high sound generating equipments and instruments on the occasions. Use of high level sound generating fire crackers should be reduced during the occasions like festivals, parties, marriages, etc. Subjects related to the noise pollution should be added into textbooks and activities can be organized in the schools like lectures, discussion, etc so that new generations can be more aware and responsible citizens.

 

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Noise pollution, also known as environmental noise, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport and transportation systems.[1][2] Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas. Research suggests that noise pollution is the highest in low-income and racial minority neighborhoods.[3] Documented problems associated with urban environment noise go back as far as ancient Rome.[4]

High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease.[5] In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss.[6]

Health[edit]

Humans[edit]

Main article: Health effects from noise

Noise pollution affects both health and behavior. Unwanted sound (noise) can damage psychological and physiological health. Noise pollution can cause hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects.[7][8][9][10]

Sound becomes unwanted when it either interferes with normal activities such as sleep or conversation, or disrupts or diminishes one's quality of life.[11]Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused by outside (e.g. trains) or inside (e.g. music) noise.

Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. Older males exposed to significant occupational noise demonstrate more significantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers, though differences in hearing sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups are indistinguishable by age 79.[12] A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.S. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss.[7]

High noise levels can result in cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight-hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase in stress,[7] and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted above, as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease.

Less addressed is how humans adapt to noise subjectively. Indeed, tolerance for noise is frequently independent of decibel levels. However, Murray Schafer's soundscape research was groundbreaking in this regard. In his eponymous work, he makes compelling arguments about how humans relate to noise on a subjective level, and how such subjectivity is conditioned by culture.[13] He also notes that sound is an expression of power, and as such, material culture (e.g., fast cars or Harley Davidson motorcycles with aftermarket pipes) tend to have louder engines not only for safety reasons, but for expressions of power by dominating the soundscape with a particular sound. Other key research in this area can be seen in Fong's comparative analysis of soundscape differences between Bangkok, Thailand and Los Angeles, California, US. Fong's research methodology was modeled after Schafer, and the research findings show how not only do soundscapes differ, but they also rather explicitly point to the level of urban development in the area; that is, cities in the periphery – in Immanuel Wallerstein-speak – will have different soundscapes than that of cities in the core. Fong's important findings tie not only soundscape appreciation to our subjective views of sound, but also demonstrates how different sounds of the soundscape are indicative of class differences in urban environments.[14]

Wildlife[edit]

Noise can have a detrimental effect on wild animals, increasing the risk of death by changing the delicate balance in predator or prey detection and avoidance, and interfering the use of the sounds in communication, especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation. Acoustic overexposure can lead to temporary or permanent loss of hearing.

An impact of noise on wild animal life is the reduction of usable habitat that noisy areas may cause, which in the case of endangered species may be part of the path to extinction. Noise pollution may have caused the death of certain species of whales that beached themselves after being exposed to the loud sound of military sonar.[15] (see also Marine mammals and sonar)

Noise also makes species communicate more loudly, which is called Lombard vocal response.[16] Scientists and researchers have conducted experiments that show whales' song length is longer when submarine-detectors are on.[17] If creatures do not "speak" loudly enough, their voice will be masked by anthropogenic sounds. These unheard voices might be warnings, finding of prey, or preparations of net-bubbling. When one species begins speaking more loudly, it will mask other species' voice, causing the whole ecosystem eventually to speak more loudly.

Marine invertebrates, such as crabs (Carcinus maenas), have also been shown to be negatively affected by ship noise.[18][19] Larger crabs were noted to be negatively affected more by the sounds than smaller crabs. Repeated exposure to the sounds did lead to acclimatization.[19]

European robins living in urban environments are more likely to sing at night in places with high levels of noise pollution during the day, suggesting that they sing at night because it is quieter, and their message can propagate through the environment more clearly.[20] The same study showed that daytime noise was a stronger predictor of nocturnal singing than night-time light pollution, to which the phenomenon often is attributed. Anthropogenic noise reduced the species richness of birds found in Neoptropical urban parks.[21]

Zebra finches become less faithful to their partners when exposed to traffic noise. This could alter a population's evolutionary trajectory by selecting traits, sapping resources normally devoted to other activities and thus leading to profound genetic and evolutionary consequences.[22]

Noise control[edit]

Main article: Noise control

Noise from roadways and other urban factors can be mitigated by urban planning and better design of roads. Roadway noise can be reduced by the use of noise barriers, limitation of vehicle speeds, alteration of roadway surface texture, limitation of heavy vehicles, use of traffic controls that smooth vehicle flow to reduce braking and acceleration, and tire design. An important factor in applying these strategies is a computer model for roadway noise, that is capable of addressing local topography, meteorology, traffic operations, and hypothetical mitigation. Costs of building-in mitigation can be modest, provided these solutions are sought in the planning stage of a roadway project.

Aircraft noise can be reduced by using quieter jet engines. Altering flight paths and time of day runway has benefitted residents near airports.

Industrial noise has been addressed since the 1930s via redesign of industrial equipment, shock mounted assemblies and physical barriers in the workplace. In recent years, Buy Quiet programs and initiatives have arisen in an effort to combat occupational noise exposures. These programs promote the purchase of quieter tools and equipment and encourage manufacturers to design quieter equipment.[23] The US National Institute for Occupational Health has created a database of industrial equipment with decibel levels noted.[24]

Legal status[edit]

Main article: Noise regulation

Up until the 1970s governments tended to view noise as a "nuisance" rather than an environmental problem.

Many conflicts over noise pollution are handled by negotiation between the emitter and the receiver. Escalation procedures vary by country, and may include action in conjunction with local authorities, in particular the police.

India[edit]

Noise pollution is a major problem in India.[25] The government of India has rules & regulations against firecrackers and loudspeakers, but enforcement is extremely lax.[26]Awaaz Foundation is an Indian NGO working to control noise pollution from various sources through advocacy, public interest litigation, awareness, and educational campaigns since 2003.[27] Despite increased enforcement and stringency of laws now being practised in urban areas, rural areas are still affected.

United Kingdom[edit]

Figures compiled by rockwool, the mineral woolinsulation manufacturer, based on responses from local authorities to a Freedom of Information Act (FOI) request reveal in the period April 2008 – 2009 UK councils received 315,838 complaints about noise pollution from private residences. This resulted in environmental health officers across the UK serving 8,069 noise abatement notices or citations under the terms of the Anti-Social Behaviour (Scotland) Act. In the last 12 months, 524 confiscations of equipment have been authorized involving the removal of powerful speakers, stereos and televisions. Westminster City Council has received more complaints per head of population than any other district in the UK with 9,814 grievances about noise, which equates to 42.32 complaints per thousand residents. Eight of the top 10 councils ranked by complaints per 1,000 residents are located in London.[28]

United States[edit]

There are federal standards for highway and aircraft noise; states and local governments typically have very specific statutes on building codes, urban planning, and roadway development.

Noise laws and ordinances vary widely among municipalities and indeed do not even exist in some cities. An ordinance may contain a general prohibition against making noise that is a nuisance, or it may set out specific guidelines for the level of noise allowable at certain times of the day and for certain activities.

The Environmental Protection Agency retains authority to investigate and study noise and its effect, disseminate information to the public regarding noise pollution and its adverse health effects, respond to inquiries on matters related to noise, and evaluate the effectiveness of existing regulations for protecting the public health and welfare, pursuant to the Noise Control Act of 1972 and the Quiet Communities Act of 1978.[29]

New York City instituted the first comprehensive noise code in 1985. The Portland Noise Code includes potential fines of up to $5000 per infraction and is the basis for other major U.S. and Canadian city noise ordinances.[30]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Senate Public Works Committee, Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972, S. Rep. No. 1160, 92nd Cong. 2nd session
  2. ^C. Michael Hogan and Gary L. Latshaw, "The relationship between highway planning and urban noise", The Proceedings of the ASCE, Urban Transportation, May 21–23, 1973, Chicago, Illinois. By American Society of Civil Engineers. Urban Transportation Division
  3. ^Casey, Joan A; James, Peter; Morello-Forsch, Rachel. "Urban noise pollution is worst in poor and minority neighborhoods and segregated cities". PBS. Published October 7, 2017. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
  4. ^"Medscape Log In". 
  5. ^Hoffmann, Barbara; Moebus, Susanne; Stang, Andreas; Beck, Eva-Maria; Dragano, Nico; Möhlenkamp, Stephan; Schmermund, Axel; Memmesheimer, Michael; Mann, Klaus (2006-11-01). "Residence close to high traffic and prevalence of coronary heart disease". European Heart Journal. 27 (22): 2696–2702. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehl278. ISSN 0195-668X. PMID 17003049. 
  6. ^"Results and Discussion – Effects – Noise Effect On Wildlife – Noise – Environment – FHWA". www.fhwa.dot.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-21. 
  7. ^ abcS. Rosen and P. Olin, Hearing Loss and Coronary Heart Disease, Archives of Otolaryngology, 82:236 (1965)
  8. ^J.M. Field, Effect of personal and situational variables upon noise annoyance in residential areas, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 93: 2753–2763 (1993)
  9. ^"Noise Pollution". World Health Organisation. 
  10. ^"Road noise link to blood pressure". BBC News. 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  11. ^Jefferson, Catrice. "Noise Pollution". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2013-09-24. 
  12. ^Rosenhall U, Pedersen K, Svanborg A (1990). "Presbycusis and noise-induced hearing loss". Ear Hear. 11 (4): 257–63. doi:10.1097/00003446-199008000-00002. PMID 2210099. 
  13. ^Schafer, Murray (1977). The Soundscape. Destiny Books. 
  14. ^Fong, Jack (2014). "Making Operative Concepts from Murray Schafer's Soundscapes Typology: A Qualitative and Comparative Analysis of Noise Pollution in Bangkok, Thailand and Los Angeles, California". Urban Studies. 53 (1): 173–192. doi:10.1177/0042098014562333. 
  15. ^Bahamas Marine Mammal Stranding Event of 15–16 March 2000
  16. ^[NULL]. "DOSITS: Page Not Found". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  17. ^"Variation in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song length in relation to". Bibcode:2003ASAJ..113.3411F. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  18. ^McClain, Craig. "Loud Noise Makes Crabs Even More Crabby". Deep Sea News. Retrieved 2013-04-04. 
  19. ^ abWale, M. A.; Simpson, S. D.; Radford, A. N. (2013). "Size-dependent physiological responses of shore crabs to single and repeated playback of ship noise". Biology Letters. 9 (2): 20121194–20121194. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.1194. ISSN 1744-9561. PMC 3639773. PMID 23445945. 
  20. ^Fuller RA, Warren PH, Gaston KJ (2007). "Daytime noise predicts nocturnal singing in urban robins". Biology Letters. 3 (4): 368–70. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0134. PMC 2390663. PMID 17456449. 
  21. ^Perillo, A.; Mazzoni, L. G.; Passos, L. F.; Goulart, V. D. L. R.; Duca, C.; Young, R. J. (2017). "Anthropogenic noise reduces bird species richness and diversity in urban parks". Ibis. 159 (3): 638–646. doi:10.1111/ibi.12481. 
  22. ^Milius, S. (2007). High Volume, Low Fidelity: Birds are less faithful as sounds blare, Science News vol. 172, p. 116. (references)
  23. ^"CDC – Buy Quiet – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  24. ^"CDC – Buy Quiet: Efforts – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  25. ^IANS (29 August 2016). "Freedom from noise pollution will be true independence (Comment: Special to IANS)" – via Business Standard. 
  26. ^"Central Pollution Control Board: FAQs". Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  27. ^Rising festival noise undoing past efforts'
  28. ^"London is home to the noisiest neighbours". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 2013-01-14. 
  29. ^EPA. "Noise pollution". Environmental protection agency. Retrieved 2013-10-28. 
  30. ^City of Portland, Oregon. Auditor's Office. Chapter 18.02 Title Noise Control. Retrieved on April 20, 2009.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Traffic is the main source of noise pollution in cities.
A man wears ear defenders for protection against noise pollution, 1973.

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