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Ade Tesfay Family:Index of Individuals


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Ade Tesfay Family:
Index of Individuals


(Abiti)

(Abiti), Yonatan Samuael

?

?
?
?
?
?
?
?

2

2, Yohannes

3

3, Aradu/Almaz/+
3, Yohannes

Abduljewad

Abduljewad, Munib
Abduljewad, Ruth
Abduljewad, Samuael
Abduljewad, Zekarias

Abdulkadir

Abdulkadir, Abduljewad

Abe

Abe, Gebraela
Abe, Meaza
Abe, Mehari
Abe, Sahle
Abe, Shewit
Abe, Tirhas
Abe, Weldaye
Abe, Yafet

Abreha

Abreha, Almaz
Abreha, Ani
Abreha, Bisrat
Abreha, Chuchu
Abreha, Essayas
Abreha, Hailu
Abreha, Lili
Abreha, Maria
Abreha, Rigeat(Etete)
Abreha, Roman
Abreha, Salem
Abreha, Semaynesh
Abreha, Solomon
Abreha, Tesfalem
Abreha, Tsion(Mimi)
Abreha, Yordanos

Abreham

Abreham, Amanuael
Abreham, Aster
Abreham, Azeb
Abreham, Belaynesh
Abreham, Haregu
Abreham, Lucia
Abreham, Samuael
Abreham, Samuel,Dr
Abreham, Teklai
Abreham, Tsehaytu
Abreham, Yohannes(jobi)
Abreham, Zekarias
Abreham, Zewdi

Abrehatsion

Abrehatsion

Ada-Italian

Ada-Italian

Adal

Adal, Esabel
Adal, Gem
Adal, Natali

Adgoy

Adgoy, Kiflemariam

Adhanom

Adhanom, Teklaye

Adig

Adig, Ferda

Adopted)

Adopted), Tekie Haile(Possibly

Afework

Afework
Afework
Afework, Aklilu
Afework, Aman
Afework, Dawit
Afework, Medhane
Afework, Michael(Miki)
Afework, Mikias
Afework, Rahwa
Afework, Saba
Afework, Simon
Afework, Tewodros(Tedi)
Afework, Tsehay
Afework, Yohannes
Afework, Yordanos
Afework, Zewdi

Afeworki

Afeworki, Ezana
Afeworki, Gelila
Afeworki, Yohannes

Ahmed

Ahmed, ?
Ahmed, ?

Aklilu

Aklilu, Tewodros

Alamin

Alamin, ?

Alazar

Alazar, Senait

Ali

Ali, Mahmed
Ali, Rihana
Ali, Seid
Ali, Zemzem

Almaz

Almaz
Almaz
Almaz, Elen
Almaz, Million

Amanuael

Amanuael, Nahomit
Amanuael, Yafet

Amare

Amare

Ambaye

Ambaye, Alganesh
Ambaye, Gezu
Ambaye, Haregu
Ambaye, Tsegay

American

American
American, Mark-

Amha

Amha, Afomia
Amha, Bahleb

Amleset

Amleset

Andemariam

Andemariam, Haregewaine

Andom

Andom
Andom, Ena

Aradu

Aradu

Araia

Araia, Almaz
Araia, Negusie
Araia, Seifu,Dr
Araia, Wase
Araia, Zewditu

Araya

Araya, Elsa

Asegid

Asegid, Angelina
Asegid, Debora
Asegid, Lidya

Asfaw

Asfaw, Seble
Asfaw, Tsion

Ashagulgual

Ashagulgual, Semre

Aster

Aster

Ateshem

Ateshem, Nigisti

Awed

Awed, ?
Awed, ?
Awed, ?
Awed, ?
Awed, ?

Bayra

Bayra, Nerai

Belaynesh

Belaynesh

Belete

Belete, Semenawit

Belyue

Belyue

Beraki

Beraki, Mehret

Berhae

Berhae, Abreham

Berhane

Berhane
Berhane, 7 kids
Berhane, Aklile
Berhane, Alganesh, Dingil
Berhane, Daniel
Berhane, Essayas
Berhane, Fetwi
Berhane, Firehiwot
Berhane, Medhane
Berhane, Muluberhane
Berhane, Solomon
Berhane, Yikuno
Berhane, Yosef

Beyne

Beyne, Aberash
Beyne, Abrehatsion
Beyne, Alganesh
Beyne, Bernesh(weletmichael)
Beyne, Dersse
Beyne, Feshatsion
Beyne, Letberhan
Beyne, Letmskel
Beyne, Letnegus
Beyne, Mehret
Beyne, Wenesh

Biniam

Biniam, Matti

Birhanae

Birhanae, Siyum
Birhanae, Tomas

Bisrat

Bisrat, Ekubai
Bisrat, Emun
Bisrat, Haleab
Bisrat, Kidest
Bisrat, Melete
Bisrat, Netsereab
Bisrat, Teklechristos
Bisrat, Tselat
Bisrat, Yordanos

Chela

Chela, Asegid

Child

Child, one
Child, Second

Children

Children, No
Children, No
Children, No
Children, No
Children, No
Children, No
Children, No
Children, No
Children, No
Children, No

Cilla

Cilla, Maria

Daniel

Daniel
Daniel
Daniel, Abigel
Daniel, Alem
Daniel, Amanuael
Daniel, Fishaye
Daniel, Goytom
Daniel, Joshua
Daniel, Letebrhan
Daniel, Seifora
Daniel, Selome
Daniel, Siena
Daniel, Tariku
Daniel, Tinsae
Daniel, Tsegai

Debebe

Debebe
Debebe, Amanuael
Debebe, Robel
Debebe, Tesfaye

Debretsion

Debretsion, Alazar
Debretsion, Arsema
Debretsion, Eliot
Debretsion, Fishaye
Debretsion, Gebremeskel
Debretsion, Marta
Debretsion, Saba
Debretsion, Weldeab
Debretsion, Yodit
Debretsion, Zemichael

DedeniaTegene

DedeniaTegene

Dejene

Dejene, Yosef

Delina

Delina

Demena

Demena, Ali

Derba

Derba, Daniel

Deresse

Deresse, Haile

Dirar

Dirar, Birhanae
Dirar, Gebremedin

Dominico

Dominico, Amha

Edris

Edris, Ahmed
Edris, Ebrahim
Edris, Suleman

Elen

Elen

Elsa

Elsa

Enyew

Enyew, Tegene

Ephrem

Ephrem, Ezana
Ephrem, Simon

Eriterian

Eriterian
Eriterian, Alemseged

Estifanos

Estifanos, Adiam

Eyob

Eyob, Alem
Eyob, Asmerom
Eyob, Assefa
Eyob, Bereket
Eyob, Eyassu
Eyob, Fana
Eyob, Genet
Eyob, Kiflom
Eyob, Lidya
Eyob, Misrak

Ezana

Ezana, Benjamin
Ezana, Dawit(David)
Ezana, Yonathan

Faluk

Faluk, Chaluck, Maluck Negus Meron
Faluk, Yacob, Chaluck, Maluck

Fayiz

Fayiz, Hali
Fayiz, Lasmin
Fayiz, Massun
Fayiz, Riyan

Fekadu

Fekadu, Feven

Ferewine

Ferewine

Feshatsion

Feshatsion, Asfaw
Feshatsion, Askalu
Feshatsion, Endrias
Feshatsion, Liya
Feshatsion, Tsehaitu
Feshatsion, Yohannes
Feshatsion, Yohannes

Filimaon

Filimaon

Fisha

Fisha, Balwaye
Fisha, Henok
Fisha, Hiwot
Fisha, Lula
Fisha, Nathnael
Fisha, Rahel
Fisha, Sihin

Fishaye

Fishaye, Ephrem(d. 2007)

Fongado

Fongado
Fongado, Antonate
Fongado, Morris
Fongado, Norah

Ford

Ford, Robert

Gebrai

Gebrai, Zeweldaye

Gebray

Gebray, Almaz
Gebray, Elisabeth
Gebray, Gebreyesus
Gebray, Mebrat
Gebray, Tsegehaimanot
Gebray, Tsigereda
Gebray, Weldemichael
Gebray, Yemane
Gebray, Yeshi

Gebre

Gebre, Netos

Gebrechristos

Gebrechristos, Ashagulgual

Gebregziabeher

Gebregziabeher, Samrawit

Gebrehiwot

Gebrehiwot, Asfaw

Gebremedin

Gebremedin, Abeba
Gebremedin, Ephrem
Gebremedin, Kasech
Gebremedin, Lemlem
Gebremedin, Lesanu
Gebremedin, Negesti
Gebremedin, Tesfaye
Gebremedin, Yenenesh
Gebremedin, Yohannes
Gebremedin, Yoseph

Gebremeskel

Gebremeskel, Lewam
Gebremeskel, Metkel
Gebremeskel, Michael
Gebremeskel, Mussie
Gebremeskel, Tesfassielase

Gebremichael

Gebremichael, Adhanet
Gebremichael, Assefha
Gebremichael, Azeb
Gebremichael, Gebrai
Gebremichael, Leuleseged
Gebremichael, Mehari
Gebremichael, Zinar

Gebreselassie

Gebreselassie, Sleshi

Gebreyesus

Gebreyesus, Mehari

Gebrhiwot

Gebrhiwot, Kibra

Gebriel

Gebriel, Aster

Gergish

Gergish, Aron
Gergish, Asegedech
Gergish, Haileselassie(Haile)
Gergish, Kidane
Gergish, Mulugeta
Gergish, Tekle
Gergish, Zewdi

Gezahegn

Gezahegn, Aregash

Gidey

Gidey, Abreham
Gidey, Simret

Girma

Girma
Girma, Almaz

Girmay

Girmay

Girmaye

Girmaye, Yodit

Gosta

Gosta, Bayra

Goyteom

Goyteom, Aster
Goyteom, Gebremichael

Goytom

Goytom, Yordanos

Grim

Grim, Cornealia

Gualu

Gualu, Gebre

Gulk

Gulk
Gulk, Helen
Gulk, Saba

Guma

Guma, Negus Meron

Habtae

Habtae, Haimanot

Hagos

Hagos, Asmret
Hagos, Nigisti
Hagos, Senbetu
Hagos, Tewolde Gebre /brother of Dejach
Hagos, Tirhas

Haile

Haile, Abeba
Haile, Aster
Haile, Fishaye
Haile, Helen
Haile, Meseret
Haile, Seifu
Haile, Solomon
Haile, Tsige
Haile, Yordanos
Haile, Zimam

Haileab

Haileab
Haileab, Genet

Haileat

Haileat, Eyob

Hailemichael

Hailemichael, Segen
Hailemichael, Semre

Haileselassie

Haileselassie, Amanuael(Aman)

Hailu

Hailu, Medhin
Hailu, Tsega

Haweki

Haweki, Weldemariam

Helen

Helen

Henok

Henok, Jessi
Henok, Julia

HermelaTegene

HermelaTegene

Hewan

Hewan

Hiwot

Hiwot

Issayas

Issayas, Heran
Issayas, Sina

Italian

Italian
Italian
Italian, Fekadu
Italian, Rita
Italian, Roza
Italian, Vittoria

Jaw

Jaw
Jaw, Gualu

Kahssay

Kahssay

Kahssay(Hiyab)

Kahssay(Hiyab), Mehad

Kahssay

Kahssay, Birktimariam
Kahssay, Elshadai
Kahssay, Genet
Kahssay, Kaleab
Kahssay, Katherin
Kahssay, Maria
Kahssay, Tsehaitu

Kaizer

Kaizer
Kaizer, Christopher
Kaizer, Jeraldin

Kaleab

Kaleab

Kassa

Kassa, Adenay
Kassa, Rahewa

Kelati

Kelati, Haile

Ketema

Ketema, Samuael

Kibreab

Kibreab, Ekubazgi
Kibreab, Embet
Kibreab, Gebriel
Kibreab, Hana
Kibreab, Michael
Kibreab, Sara
Kibreab, Selam
Kibreab, Yacob
Kibreab, Yohannes

Kid

Kid, 1
Kid, 1
Kid, 1

kid

kid, 1
kid, 1
kid, 1

Kid

Kid, One

Kidan

Kidan

Kidane

Kidane, Abeba
Kidane, Elsa

Kidanemariam

Kidanemariam, Tiblest

Kids

Kids, 2
Kids, 2

kids

kids, 2
kids, 2
kids, 2
kids, 2
kids, 2
kids, 2
kids, 2
kids, 2
kids, 2

Kids

Kids, 3
Kids, 3
Kids, 3
Kids, 3
Kids, 3
Kids, 3
Kids, 3

kids

kids, 3

Kids

Kids, 4

kids

kids, 4

Kids

Kids, No
Kids, No

Kiflemariam

Kiflemariam, Asmret
Kiflemariam, Desalgn
Kiflemariam, Kidest(nani)
Kiflemariam, Kirubel
Kiflemariam, Lili
Kiflemariam, Rebeca(Titi)

Kifleyesus

Kifleyesus, Alefesh
Kifleyesus, Alem
Kifleyesus, Belay
Kifleyesus, Gezahegn
Kifleyesus, Hirui(d. 2009)
Kifleyesus, Mulu
Kifleyesus, Yodit

Kiflit

Kiflit, Ametemariam

Kirubel

Kirubel, Sesen

Kortuma

Kortuma

Kuaste

Kuaste

Kurban

Kurban, Meaza

Leteslasie

Leteslasie

Leulai

Leulai, Rezene

Lucia

Lucia

Mahmed

Mahmed, Alamin
Mahmed, Awed
Mahmed, Butel
Mahmed, Muna
Mahmed, Sultan
Mahmed, Tebarek

Mahmud

Mahmud, Ebrahim
Mahmud, Guvera
Mahmud, Hanibal
Mahmud, Meriam
Mahmud, Mina

Mamitu-Eriterian

Mamitu-Eriterian

Maria

Maria

Mario

Mario
Mario, Alex
Mario, Angelina
Mario, Catherina

Mark

Mark, Lia

Mary

Mary

Matios

Matios, Filimon
Matios, Meron

Mebratu

Mebratu, Leteslassie

Medhane

Medhane
Medhane, Aman
Medhane, Estifanos
Medhane, Nael
Medhane, Paulos
Medhane, Sirak
Medhane, Temesgen
Medhane, Tomas
Medhane, Yemane

Mehari

Mehari
Mehari, Adulis
Mehari, Kiflemariam, Captain
Mehari, Michael
Mehari, Samuel
Mehari, Sheden

Mekonnen

Mekonnen
Mekonnen, Azeb
Mekonnen, Degol
Mekonnen, Elias
Mekonnen, Gebreyesus
Mekonnen, Hadas
Mekonnen, Kassa
Mekonnen, Rahel
Mekonnen, Rahel
Mekonnen, Segen
Mekonnen, Shewit
Mekonnen, Sofia
Mekonnen, Tesfy

Melak

Melak
Melak, Naib

Melakeberhan

Melakeberhan, Asmait
Melakeberhan, Ephrem
Melakeberhan, Nazareth
Melakeberhan, Selamawit
Melakeberhan, Senait

Melashu

Melashu, Andom
Melashu, Hideat
Melashu, Mebrat

Melete

Melete

Melke

Melke
Melke, Mahlet
Melke, Yisak

Mengesha

Mengesha, Abezgu
Mengesha, Debretsion
Mengesha, Dinglu
Mengesha, Elisabeth(Nani)
Mengesha, Mekonnen
Mengesha, Siyum
Mengesha, Tesfay
Mengesha, Tewolde
Mengesha, Tiru

Mengistab

Mengistab, Afeworki
Mengistab, Kahssay
Mengistab, Solomon

Mesazgi

Mesazgi, Tiblest

Messai

Messai
Messai, Mahlet

Michael

Michael
Michael, Meriam
Michael, Nahel
Michael, Yonathan

Minilik(Nati)

Minilik(Nati), Natnael

Minilik

Minilik, Saron
Minilik, Simon

Minisk

Minisk
Minisk, Yonathan

Mohamed

Mohamed, Edris
Mohamed, Mahmud
Mohamed, Rumana
Mohamed, Saleh
Mohamed, Zeyneb

Mother)

Mother), Kifleyesus Siyum(from differnt

Mother

Mother, Hagos Yosef /differnet

Mulugeta

Mulugeta, Lubi
Mulugeta, Meazamedhin
Mulugeta, Tesfay

Musse

Musse, Elsa
Musse, Essey
Musse, Genet
Musse, Milkias
Musse, Million
Musse, Neamen
Musse, Yodit

Mussie

Mussie, Lulia

Nasir

Nasir, Nebil
Nasir, Samuel

Nega

Nega
Nega, Saron

Negasi

Negasi, Birikti

Nerai

Nerai, Fisha

Netos

Netos, Gebrechristos

Nigusie

Nigusie, Petros

Nigusse

Nigusse
Nigusse, Habon
Nigusse, Samrawit(d. 2010)

Petros

Petros, Abel
Petros, Gebreal
Petros, Goyteom
Petros, Michael
Petros, Sara
Petros, Tserha

Rahwa

Rahwa

Reda

Reda, Amaresh
Reda, Asefha
Reda, Berkti
Reda, Gebregziabeher
Reda, Gebrekidan
Reda, Michael
Reda, Tsegaberdan

Resom

Resom, Daniel

Rezene

Rezene, Mathew
Rezene, Mimi

Robel

Robel, Fares
Robel, Penael

Robert

Robert, Yohannes

Roma

Roma

Saleh

Saleh, Nasir
Saleh, Suleman

Sami

Sami

Samson

Samson

Samson(Kiflemariam)

Samson(Kiflemariam), Petros

Samson

Samson, Biniam(Bini)

Samuael

Samuael, Lewisa

Samuel

Samuel, Paulos
Samuel, Petros
Samuel, Ruth
Samuel, Samrawit
Samuel, Semhare
Samuel, Yonas

Sebuh

Sebuh, Eyesusawit

Segid

Segid, Kibreab

Seid

Seid, ?
Seid, ?
Seid, Adal
Seid, Amir
Seid, Fayiz
Seid, Fuad
Seid, Muna
Seid, Samia
Seid, Suzanna
Seid, Yacob

Seifu

Seifu, Tewodros

Selamawit

Selamawit

Semre

Semre, Dorina
Semre, Guma
Semre, Seble
Semre, Semir
Semre, Tsehay

Senait

Senait

Shikir

Shikir, Tiblest

Showaye

Showaye

Shulte

Shulte
Shulte, Eleni
Shulte, Samuel

Siyum

Siyum, Abrehet
Siyum, Beynesh
Siyum, Haileab
Siyum, Mehari
Siyum, Selamawit
Siyum, Tekeste
Siyum, Zekarias

Sleshi

Sleshi, Bisrat
Sleshi, Lemlem
Sleshi, Martha
Sleshi, Senait

Solomon

Solomon
Solomon
Solomon
Solomon, Alganesh
Solomon, Asefash
Solomon, Asmret
Solomon, Bethlem
Solomon, Elen
Solomon, Kaleb
Solomon, Kidane
Solomon, Lidya
Solomon, Mehari
Solomon, Rufael
Solomon, Sara
Solomon, Semre
Solomon, Sesen

Somal

Somal

Sudanise

Sudanise, Seid Menssur-

Suleman

Suleman, ?
Suleman, ?
Suleman, Belata Mohamed
Suleman, Givena Dotri
Suleman, Saleh

Sultan

Sultan, ?
Sultan, ?

Tariku

Tariku

Tebarek

Tebarek, ?
Tebarek, ?

Tedla

Tedla, Abreha
Tedla, Fewterari Yosef
Tedla, Gergish
Tedla, Gezahegn
Tedla, Haileab
Tedla, Kibreab
Tedla, Lemlem
Tedla, Melashu
Tedla, Mengesha
Tedla, Mengistab
Tedla, Tiberih

Teklaye

Teklaye, Abe

Tekle

Tekle, Biniam
Tekle, Danile
Tekle, Elisabeth
Tekle, Genet
Tekle, Helen
Tekle, Medhin
Tekle, Raheal(Bichichi)
Tekle, Samson
Tekle, Tewodros
Tekle, Tisegeroman
Tekle, Zekarias

Teklebrehan

Teklebrehan, Elsa

Teklehaimanot

Teklehaimanot, Amanuael
Teklehaimanot, Ambaye
Teklehaimanot, Anbaye
Teklehaimanot, Belata
Teklehaimanot, Elen
Teklehaimanot, Fanty
Teklehaimanot, Hansu
Teklehaimanot, Mitu
Teklehaimanot, Petros
Teklehaimanot, Petros
Teklehaimanot, Selas
Teklehaimanot, Tsega
Teklehaimanot, Wedu

Teklemariam

Teklemariam, Bahrenegasi

Tekleslassie

Tekleslassie, Abreha

Temels

Temels, Kidane

Tesfamariam

Tesfamariam, Abrehet
Tesfamariam, Biniam
Tesfamariam, Eskinder
Tesfamariam, Glaudios
Tesfamariam, Isacor
Tesfamariam, Issayas
Tesfamariam, Jerusalem
Tesfamariam, Minilik
Tesfamariam, Seble
Tesfamariam, Temesgen
Tesfamariam, Yohannes
Tesfamariam, Yosef

Tesfamichael

Tesfamichael, Alem

Tesfaselassie

Tesfaselassie, Nahom
Tesfaselassie, Samrawit

Tesfay

Tesfay
Tesfay, Aberash,Dingle
Tesfay, Beyne
Tesfay, Kassa,Abba(b. 1875)
Tesfay, Petros
Tesfay, Reda
Tesfay, Tedla
Tesfay, Tiru,Dingle
Tesfay, Tsehaitu

Tesfaye

Tesfaye, Abel

Tesfazgi

Tesfazgi, Matios

Tesfu

Tesfu, Eyob
Tesfu, Tsehaitu

Teta

Teta, Gosta

Tewodros

Tewodros, Eyobed
Tewodros, Lidya
Tewodros, Raei

Tewolde

Tewolde, Absira
Tewolde, Awat
Tewolde, Bizu
Tewolde, Ellen
Tewolde, Haileat
Tewolde, Hirut
Tewolde, Mebrehat
Tewolde, Mussie
Tewolde, Negash
Tewolde, Tabor
Tewolde, Yohan
Tewolde, Zemichael
Tewolde, Zewdi

Tibya

Tibya, Teta

Tseada

Tseada, Abreha

Tsegai

Tsegai, Teklehaimanot,Dr

Tsegay

Tsegay

Tsegaye

Tsegaye, Armania
Tsegaye, Degol
Tsegaye, Hermela

Tsine

Tsine, Hansu

Ukubagabir

Ukubagabir, Azmach Yohannes(b. 27 Jun 1896)

Valentina

Valentina

Vicianso

Vicianso
Vicianso, Adriana
Vicianso, Balentino
Vicianso, Nando

vonmohrenshildt-Germany

vonmohrenshildt-Germany, Maria

Wase

Wase, ?
Wase, Babi
Wase, Dergiat Araia

Weldemariam

Weldemariam, Amte Askalu
Weldemariam, Berhane
Weldemariam, Bisrat
Weldemariam, Daniel
Weldemariam, Gebray
Weldemariam, Haregu, Dingil
Weldemariam, Nigisti
Weldemariam, Petros
Weldemariam, Tsegu
Weldemariam, Weldeyesus
Weldemariam, Yacob
Weldemariam, Yohannes
Weldemariam, Zufan

Weldeyesus

Weldeyesus, Angiaze
Weldeyesus, Birikti, Dingil
Weldeyesus, Dawit
Weldeyesus, Debretsion
Weldeyesus, Haile
Weldeyesus, Meaza
Weldeyesus, Mehari
Weldeyesus, Ridae
Weldeyesus, Roma
Weldeyesus, Tewolde
Weldeyesus, Weldaye
Weldeyesus, Zimam

Weldezgi

Weldezgi, Kifleyesus

Wife

Wife, No

wife

wife, Second

Wife

Wife, Third

Woldemichael

Woldemichael, Araya

Woldeyohannes

Woldeyohannes, Zufan

Woldu

Woldu, Abrehet
Woldu, Tesfaselassie
Woldu, Webnesh

Yacob

Yacob, Askalemariam,Dingil
Yacob, Azeb
Yacob, Ermias
Yacob, Hailemichael
Yacob, Letemichael
Yacob, Saba
Yacob, Sonia
Yacob, Tibya
Yacob, Wedase
Yacob, Weldemariam

Yilkal

Yilkal
Yilkal, Bethelehem
Yilkal, Ermias

Yohan

Yohan, Nimrod
Yohan, Yuel

Yohannes

Yohannes
Yohannes
Yohannes
Yohannes, Biniam
Yohannes, Daniel
Yohannes, Debretsion
Yohannes, Dehab(b. 12 Nov 1928)
Yohannes, Dirar
Yohannes, Ephrem
Yohannes, Fisha
Yohannes, Gebremeskel
Yohannes, Habtegiorgis
Yohannes, Kesinet
Yohannes, Letegergish(b. 02 Feb 1930)
Yohannes, Melakeberhan
Yohannes, Meletetsga(b. 13 Jun 1932)
Yohannes, Musse(b. 11 Oct 1936)
Yohannes, Nathnael
Yohannes, Netsheti
Yohannes, Nicolas
Yohannes, Rigbe
Yohannes, Saba
Yohannes, Senay
Yohannes, Sofia
Yohannes, Tekle
Yohannes, Tesfamariam(b. 10 Jan 1925)
Yohannes, Tesfaslasie
Yohannes, Tesfay Debretsion
Yohannes, Woldemichael(b. 20 Nov 1917)
Yohannes, Yacob
Yohannes, Yodit

Yosef

Yosef
Yosef, Amanuael
Yosef, Angeiz
Yosef, Angelina
Yosef, Dejen
Yosef, Habon
Yosef, Leule
Yosef, Madelina
Yosef, Medhane
Yosef, Minilik
Yosef, Roseta
Yosef, Rufta
Yosef, Selam
Yosef, Senay, Abba

Zekarias

Zekarias, Natan

Zemichael

Zemichael, Genet
Zemichael, Kibreab
Zemichael, Leteab
Zemichael, Saba
Zemichael, Senait
Zemichael, Tesfay
Zemichael, Tesfay

There is fighting talk on both sides, but neither would benefit from actual war.

At a refugee camp near the Eritrea-Ethiopia border. Credit: Roberto Maldeno.

International attention has once again been drawn to the fraught relationship between Ethiopia and Eritrea, with both sides admitting that the recent flare-up of armed conflict on their shared border resulted in “significant casualties”.

The border between the two countries remains heavily militarised, with a no-man’s land between the two armies. However, reconnaissance units from both sides – as well as refugees and deserters from the Eritrean side – often cross this “no-go” area. It is possible that the 12 June fighting was triggered by any of these movements, though it seems the Ethiopian military acted in an unusually robust way. Either way, the incident has since been followed up by strong words on both sides.

When these two countries went to war between 1998 and 2000, tens of thousands from both sides died. Could this latest skirmish spiral into another full-fledged war?

A difficult history

Ethiopia and Eritrea have profound historical and cultural ties. But they also have separate histories – which the political classes of the two countries play up or down depending on their political aspirations – particularly around the fact that Ethiopia remained independent while Eritrea was colonised by Italy from 1891-1941 and was subsequently under British rule from 1941-1952.

In December 1950, the United Nations General Assembly voted in favour of granting Eritrea autonomous federal status under the sovereignty of the Ethiopian Crown. This was in line with the aspirations of a segment of the Eritrean population, but another section of society was vehemently opposed. Eritreans were not given the opportunity to vote on the issue, however, so it is difficult to determine which side had greater popular support.

Nevertheless, the ongoing federal arrangement proved unsatisfactory to both unionist and separatist segments, and it was abolished in 1962 when the Eritrean parliament voted for total union with Ethiopia.

This decision went directly against the desires of the pro-independence Eritrean elite, who claim the vote was the result of interference from Emperor Haile Selassie. In the aftermath of the decision, a “liberation struggle” was launched. This turned into a liberation war which – combined with the civil war waged by various Ethiopian groups to unseat the military government in Addis Ababa – brought untold misery to the people of both countries.

Challenges of disentanglement

These wars ended in May 1991 when the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front took control of Eritrea and Addis Ababa fell to the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front, which has been in power ever since.

The two rebel forces agreed that the Eritrean question for independence would be settled by a referendum to be organised within two years. But important terms of cessation were neither discussed nor agreed before the vote. These included issues such as commodity trade, use of Eritrean ports by Ethiopia, the question of citizenship of people of Eritrean origin in Ethiopia, and the precise border between the two countries. When the referendum was held in April 1993, the terms of the divorce had thus yet to be agreed.

Nevertheless, Eritreans voted overwhelmingly in favour of independence, which Ethiopia recognised immediately. Eritrea now had de jure independence, but continued to use the Ethiopian currency the birr, and the two economies remained closely interlinked. However, there was no clear official articulation or even exchange of ideas on a host of issues such as how to resolve problems resulting from differences in national economic plans, questions over exchange rates, and harmonisation of external customs.

As a result, the political and business class in each country felt that the relationship was lopsided in favour of the other side. In the midst of this state of mutual bitterness, Eritrea issued its own currency, the nakfa. But again, the two sides had not agreed on how to handle the implications of this on the economies of each country. Tensions rose to a new high.

Haphazard solution to the 1998-2000 war

This is the climate in which Eritrea invaded Ethiopian territory in 1998, sparking war. To the Eritrean government, it appeared that the ruling party in Ethiopia was in a vulnerable position. It ran a poor, vast, diverse country with a history of strife along various cleavages.

The 1998-2000 conflict was lazily framed as a “border war” by the international community and media. But whatever one calls it, it took the lives and limbs of tens of thousands of people from both countries.

The war finally ended with the Algiers Peace Treaty. This was signed after Ethiopia had regained all the contested territories and penetrated deep into Eritrean territory, but unfortunately the parties and mediators that facilitated this agreement took a purely legalistic approach to resolving the conflict. The real underlying causes of the conflict were swept under the carpet, and the focus was on determination of the boundary between the two states – the most superficial of the causes of the conflict. Each side won and lost some territory.

Significantly, Badme, the flashpoint for the war, was awarded to Eritrea, yet Ethiopia still holds the town and its environs.

The situation now

Better explanations of the conflict today refer to the complete absence of trust between the protagonists, a fear of accountability, and the lack of vision and resolve to move forwards.

Additionally, some point out that the defence of Eritrea’s sovereignty seems to be the only claim to legitimacy left to the ruling party. Its interest seems to be in perpetuating the status quo. And in any case, it seems the goverments in both Eritrea and Ethiopia have settled for outliving the other side as the only solution.

That implies each side has to work assiduously to shorten the lease on power of the other. But that said, neither side has any interest in starting a full-fledged war. The Ethiopian government does not want a war that could potentially reverse the country’s economic gains. Meanwhile, the Eritrean government knows it is in a much weaker political, economic and diplomatic position than it was during the last war.

Hence, the choice for the Eritrean government is to sponsor every group battling the Ethiopian government, while Ethiopia mainly relies on diplomatic and economic isolation of Eritrea.

This is not a good outcome for either side, but it is highly unlikely that the recent incidents will spiral into a large scale military confrontation. Neither side believes it would gain if they did.

Seyoum Y. Tesfay is an Assistant Professor at Addis Ababa University.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

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